Basic info Taxonomic history Classification Relationships
Morphology Ecology and taphonomy External Literature Search Age range and collections

Elephantidae (elephant)

Mammalia - Proboscidea - Elephantidae

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1821Elephantidae Gray p. 305
1825Elephantidae Gray p. 342
1850Elephantidae Bonaparte p. 1
1883Elephantidae Flower p. 185
1889Elephantidae Cope p. 876
1891Elephantidae Flower and Lydekker p. 90
1902Elephantidae Hay p. 707
1916Elephantidae Stefani p. 10
1919Elephantidae Abel p. 826
1980Elephantidae Kurten and Anderson p. 348
1981Elephantidae Thurmond and Jones p. 181
1988Elephantidae Carroll
1991Elephantidae Nowak
1995Elephantidae Kalb and Frohelich p. 729
1996Elephantidae Shoshani and Tassy p. 352
1997Elephantidae McKenna and Bell p. 502
1998Elephantidae Lambert and Shoshani p. 609
2005Elephantidae Mackaye et al. p. 766
2005Elephantidae Shoshani and Tassy p. 9 figs. Table 2
2006Elephantidae Shoshani et al. p. 17300

Is something missing? Join the Paleobiology Database and enter the data

RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
Synapsida()
RankNameAuthor
Therapsida()
infraorderCynodontia()
Epicynodontia
infraorderEucynodontia
Probainognathia
Mammaliamorpha
Mammaliaformes
classMammalia
subclassTribosphenida()
infraclassEutheria()
Placentalia
AfrotheriaStanhope et al. 1998
Tethytheria
orderProboscidea()
superfamilyElephantoidea
familyElephantidae
familyElephantidae

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
No diagnoses are available
Measurements
No measurements are available
Composition: phosphaticsubp
Environment: terrestrialsubc
Locomotion: actively mobilec
Life habit: ground dwellingf
Diet: grazerf
Diet 2: browserf
Comments: life habit and diet based on Nowak 1999f
Created: 2005-06-08 10:11:09
Modified: 2005-08-22 20:09:03
Source: f = family, subc = subclass, c = class, subp = subphylum
References: Nowak 1991, Carroll 1988, Hendy et al. 2009, Ji et al. 2002

Age range

Maximum range based only on fossils: base of the MN 9 to the top of the Holocene or 11.10000 to 0.00000 Ma
Minimum age of oldest fossil (stem group age): 9.7 Ma

Collections (1218 total)

Oldest occurrences

Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Miocene23.03 - 5.333USA (Nebraska) Elephas imperator (190543)
Miocene23.03 - 5.333Uganda Elephantidae indet. (22358) Stegotetrabelodon sp. (22444 22445)
Miocene23.03 - 5.333Tanzania Primelephas gomphotheroides (22042)
Miocene - Pliocene23.03 - 2.588Uganda Elephantidae indet. (22413) Elephantidae indet., Loxodonta sp. (22345) Loxodonta sp. (22394 22395 22408 22423 22428 22433 22456) Loxodonta sp., Stegodon kaisensis (22393) Mammuthus sp. (22344) Stegodon kaisensis (22418 22420 22424 22437) Stegotetrabelodon sp. (22453 22454) Stegotetrabelodon sp., Primelephas gomphotheroides (22451)
Miocene - Pliocene23.03 - 2.588Tanzania Primelephas gomphotheroides (22058 22062 22063) Stegotetrabelodon sp. (22056)
Miocene - Pliocene23.03 - 2.588South Africa Loxodonta sp., Stegodon sp. (22220) Mammuthus sp. (22228) Mammuthus subplanifrons (22229)
Miocene - Pliocene23.03 - 2.588Ethiopia Loxodonta adaurora (22171)
Neogene23.03 - 2.588Greece (Kozani) Stegodon sp. (202732)
Neogene23.03 - 2.588Taiwan (Tainan) Elephas sp. (76866)
Neogene23.03 - 2.588Taiwan Elephas sp. (76865) Stegodon sinensis (76863)
Neogene23.03 - 2.588USA (West Virginia) Mammuthus sp. (123931)
Neogene23.03 - 2.588Taiwan (Taichung) Stegodon insignis (76860) Stegodon orientalis (76861) Stegodon orientalis, Stegodon sinensis, Stegodon insignis (76862)
Neogene23.03 - 2.588Nicaragua Mammuthus columbi (86962)
Miocene - Pleistocene23.03 - 0.0117Ethiopia Elephantidae indet. (22128) Mammuthus sp., Elephas recki (22135)
Miocene - Pleistocene23.03 - 0.0117South Africa Mammuthus subplanifrons (22230)
Middle Miocene - Early/Lower Pleistocene15.97 - 0.781Netherlands Mammuthus meridionalis, Mammuthus primigenius (189573)
Tortonian11.62 - 7.246Kenya Elephantidae indet. A, Elephantidae indet., Stegotetrabelodon orbus, Primelephas gomphotheroides (22241)
Tortonian - Messinian11.62 - 5.333Kenya Stegotetrabelodon sp., Stegodon kaisensis (22307)
Tortonian - Zanclean11.62 - 3.6Ethiopia Mammuthus subplanifrons, Primelephas gomphotheroides (22162) Mammuthus subplanifrons, Stegodibelodon schneideri, Primelephas gomphotheroides (22139) Mammuthus subplanifrons, Stegotetrabelodon orbus, Primelephas gomphotheroides (22179) Stegodon kenyensis, Stegotetrabelodon orbus, Stegodon kaisensis, Primelephas gomphotheroides (22158) Stegotetrabelodon orbus, Stegodibelodon schneideri (22159) Stegotetrabelodon orbus, Stegodon kaisensis (22161)
Tortonian - Piacenzian11.62 - 2.588Kenya Elephantidae indet., Elephas ekorensis, Loxodonta exoptata, Stegotetrabelodon orbus (22235) Elephantidae indet., Elephas nawataensis, Stegotetrabelodon orbus (22242) Stegotetrabelodon orbus, Primelephas gomphotheroides (22236)