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Elephas (elephant)

Mammalia - Proboscidea - Elephantidae

Synonyms
Synonymy list
YearName and author
1758Elephas Linnaeus p. 33
1795Elephantus Geoffroy and Cuvier p. 189
1825Elephas Gray p. 342
1848Elephas Owen p. 139
1860Elephas Leidy p. 108
1860Elephas Nordmann p. 271
1873Elephas Leidy p. 329
1902Elephas Hay p. 712
1924Palaeoloxodon Matsumoto p. 257
1924Pilgrimia Osborn p. 2
1924Sivalikia Osborn p. 2
1927Leithadamsia Matsumoto p. 214
1929Loxodonta (Palaeoloxodon) Matsumoto p. 1
1931Hesperoloxodon Osborn p. 21
1942Hypselephas Osborn p. 1340
1942Platelephas Osborn p. 1358
1950Stegoloxodon Kretzoi p. 405
1955Omoloxodon Deraniyagala p. 25
1981Elephas Thurmond and Jones p. 181
1988Elephas Carroll
1995Elephas Capasso Barbato and Gliozzi p. 244
1995Elephas (Palaeoloxodon) Capasso Barbato and Gliozzi p. 244
1995Elephas Kalb and Frohelich p. 732 figs. Figure 2
1996Elephas Shoshani and Tassy p. 352
1997Elephas McKenna and Bell p. 504
1999Elephas Barriel et al.
2001Elephas (Palaeoloxodon) Palombo p. 487
2005Elephas (Palaeoloxodon) Palombo p. 107
2005Elephas Shoshani and Tassy p. 10 figs. Table 2
2005Palaeoloxodon Shoshani and Tassy p. 10 figs. Table 2
2006Elephas Rogaev et al.
2007Elephas Christiansen p. 428
2010Elephas Rohland et al. p. 6

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
Synapsida()
Therapsida()
RankNameAuthor
infraorderCynodontia()
Epicynodontia
infraorderEucynodontia
Probainognathia
Mammaliamorpha
Mammaliaformes
classMammalia
subclassTribosphenida()
infraclassEutheria()
Placentalia
AfrotheriaStanhope et al. 1998
Tethytheria
orderProboscidea()
superfamilyElephantoidea
familyElephantidae
subfamilyElephantinaeGray 1821
tribeElephantiniGray 1821
genusElephas

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
No diagnoses are available
Body mass estimates
estimateequationreference
 3.99 tons Mammalia femur circumferenceAnderson et al. 1985
Measurements
partNmean
femur circumference1304.8

Composition: phosphaticsubp
Environment: terrestrialsubc
Locomotion: actively mobilec
Life habit: ground dwellingf
Diet: grazerf
Diet 2: browserf
Created: 2005-06-08 10:11:09
Modified: 2005-08-22 20:09:03
Source: f = family, subc = subclass, c = class, subp = subphylum
References: Nowak 1991, Carroll 1988, Hendy et al. 2009, Ji et al. 2002

Age range

Maximum range based only on fossils: base of the Messinian to the top of the Holocene or 7.24600 to 0.00000 Ma
Minimum age of oldest fossil (stem group age): 5.333 Ma

Collections (406 total)

Oldest occurrences

Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Neogene23.03 - 2.588Taiwan Elephas sp. (76865)
Neogene23.03 - 2.588Taiwan (Tainan) Elephas sp. (76866)
Miocene - Pleistocene23.03 - 0.0117Ethiopia Elephas recki (22135)
Tortonian - Piacenzian11.62 - 2.588Kenya Elephas ekorensis (22235) Elephas nawataensis (22242)
Late/Upper Miocene11.608 - 5.333Thailand (Nakhon Ratchasima) Elephas sp. (144187)
Baodean11.1 - 4.9China (Yunnan) Elephas sp. (183982)
Messinian - Calabrian7.246 - 0.781Kenya Elephas recki (22267)
Zanclean5.333 - 3.6Kenya (Turkana District) Elephas ekorensis (21335 21336)
Zanclean5.333 - 3.6Ethiopia Elephas recki (21737 22132 22137 22176)
Zanclean5.333 - 3.6Kenya Elephas sp. (22338)
Ruscinian5.333 - 3.2China (Shanxi) Elephas sp. (42477)
Pliocene5.333 - 2.588Ethiopia (Afar) Elephas recki (70907)
Pliocene5.333 - 2.588Tanzania Elephas ekorensis (22046)
Pliocene5.333 - 2.588Kenya Elephas recki (22321)
Pliocene5.333 - 2.588India (Panjab) Elephas platycephalus, Elephas hysudriscus (51106)
Pliocene5.333 - 2.588Ethiopia Archidiskodon indet. (21754 21755) Elephas ekorensis (21753) Elephas recki (21616)
Pliocene5.333 - 2.588India (Jammu) Elephas hysudriscus (51101 51102)
Pliocene5.333 - 2.588Malawi Elephas recki (22559)
Zanclean - Piacenzian5.333 - 2.588Kenya Elephas ekorensis (22234)
Pliocene - Calabrian5.333 - 0.781Kenya Elephas recki (22269)