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Mammuthus columbi (Columbian mammoth)

Mammalia - Proboscidea - Elephantidae

Taxonomy
Elephas columbi was named by Falconer (1857). It is not extant.

It was synonymized subjectively with Elephas americanus by Leidy (1873); it was recombined as Elephas primigenius columbii by Cope (1893); it was recombined as Euelephas columbi by Osborn (1918); it was recombined as Parelephas columbi by Osborn (1924) and Osborn (1942); it was recombined as Mammuthus (Parelephas) columbi by Haury et al. (1953); it was recombined as Mammuthus columbi by Hibbard (1955), Hibbard (1955), Hibbard and Taylor (1960), Aguirre (1969), Lundelius (1972), Maglio (1973), Puckette and Scholtz (1974), Miller (1976), Kurten and Anderson (1980), Hulbert and Pratt (1998), Larson (1999) and Agenbroad (2005).

Synonyms
Synonymy list
YearName and author
1838Elephas jacksoni Mather
1857Elephas columbi Falconer
1858Elephas (Euelephas) imperator Leidy p. 29
1893Elephas primigenius columbii Cope p. 897
1902Elephas columbi Hay p. 713
1918Euelephas columbi Osborn
1918Euelephas imperator Osborn
1922Elephas roosevelti Hay
1922Elephas jeffersonii Osborn
1923Elephas washingtonii Osborn
1924Archidiskodon imperator Osborn
1924Parelephas columbi Osborn
1924Parelephas jeffersonii Osborn
1925Elephas maibeni Barbour
1926Elephas eellsi Hay
1929Archidiskodon sonoriensis Osborn
1929Elephas floridanus Osborn
1931Elephas columbi Elftman p. 12
1942Parelephas columbi Osborn
1942Parelephas floridanus Osborn
1942Parelephas jacksoni Osborn
1942Parelephas jeffersonii Osborn
1942Parelephas progressus Osborn
1942Parelephas roosevelti Osborn
1942Parelephas washingtonii Osborn
1953Mammuthus (Archidiskodon) imperator Haury et al. p. 21
1953Mammuthus (Parelephas) columbi Haury et al. p. 21
1955Mammuthus columbi Hibbard
1960Mammuthus columbi Hibbard and Taylor
1967Mammuthus jeffersoni Wilson p. 214
1969Mammuthus columbi Aguirre
1969Mammuthus imperator Aguirre
1972Mammuthus columbi Lundelius, Jr.
1973Mammuthus columbi Maglio
1973Mammuthus imperator Maglio
1974Mammuthus columbi Puckette and Scholtz p. 55
1974Mammuthus imperator Puckette and Scholtz p. 55
1974Mammuthus jeffersoni Puckette and Scholtz p. 55
1976Mammuthus columbi Miller
1976Mammuthus imperator Miller
1980Mammuthus columbi Kurten and Anderson p. 351
1980Mammuthus jeffersonii Kurten and Anderson p. 352
1981Mammuthus jacksoni Madden
1981Elephas columbi Thurmond and Jones p. 181
1983Mammuthus imperator Madden
1986Mammuthus imperator Madden
1992Mammuthus imperator Dalquest and Schultz
1996Mammuthus imperator Shoshani and Tassy
1998Mammuthus columbi Hulbert, Jr. and Pratt
1999Mammuthus columbi Larson p. 532
2005Mammuthus columbi Agenbroad p. 74
2007Mammuthus imperator Christiansen p. 425

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
Synapsida()
Therapsida()
RankNameAuthor
infraorderCynodontia()
Epicynodontia
infraorderEucynodontia
Probainognathia
Mammaliamorpha
Mammaliaformes
classMammalia
subclassTribosphenida()
infraclassEutheria()
Placentalia
AfrotheriaStanhope et al. 1998
Tethytheria
orderProboscidea()
superfamilyElephantoidea
familyElephantidae
subfamilyElephantinaeGray 1821
tribeElephantiniGray 1821
genusMammuthusBrookes 1828
speciescolumbi(Falconer 1857)

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
No diagnoses are available
Measurements
partNmean
M2 height1137.0
M3 height1228.0
m3 height1145.0

Composition: phosphaticsubp
Environment: terrestrialsubc
Locomotion: actively mobilec
Life habit: ground dwellingf
Diet: grazerg
Created: 2009-01-04 10:21:31
Modified: 2009-01-04 12:24:32
Source: g = genus, f = family, subc = subclass, c = class, subp = subphylum
References: Nowak 1991, MacFadden and Cerling 1996, Carroll 1988, Hendy et al. 2009, Ji et al. 2002

Age range: base of the Miocene to the top of the Rancholabrean or 23.03000 to 0.01200 Ma

Collections (131 total)


Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Miocene23.03 - 5.333USA (Nebraska) Elephas imperator (190543)
Neogene23.03 - 2.588Nicaragua Mammuthus columbi (86962)
Blancan4.9 - 1.8Mexico (Sonora) Mammuthus imperator (20322)
Early/Lower Pleistocene - Middle Pleistocene2.588 - 0.126El Salvador Mammuthus columbi (70118)
Pleistocene2.588 - 0.0117Mexico (Santiago chazumba) Mammuthus columbi (190089)
Pleistocene2.588 - 0.0117USA (Arkansas) Mammuthus columbi (92494)
Pleistocene2.588 - 0.0117El Salvador (Chalatenango) Mammuthus columbi (192090)
Pleistocene2.588 - 0.0117Canada (British Columbia) Archidiskodon imperator, Parelephas columbi (108782) Parelephas columbi (108781 108783 108784 108785 108786)
Pleistocene2.588 - 0.0117USA (Alabama) Elephas columbi (82056)
Pleistocene2.588 - 0.0117USA (Texas) Elephas columbi (85137 156789 190387)
Pleistocene (interglacial)2.588 - 0.0117USA (Minnesota) Elephas columbi (93502 93511)
Pleistocene2.588 - 0.0117USA (Oklahoma) Elephas columbi (93557)
Pleistocene2.588 - 0.0117Guatemala (Guatemala) Mammuthus columbi (189384)
Pleistocene2.588 - 0.0117Guatemala ( Zacapa) Mammuthus columbi (189381 189382)
Pleistocene2.588 - 0.0117Mexico (Jalisco) Elephas columbi (45173)
Pleistocene2.588 - 0.0117USA (Georgia) Elephas columbi (96899)
Pleistocene2.588 - 0.0117Guatemala (El Petén) Mammuthus columbi (189383)
Pleistocene2.588 - 0.0117USA (South Carolina) Mammuthus columbi (65405)
Pleistocene2.588 - 0.0117USA (Maryland) Elephas columbi (126660 127111)
Pleistocene2.588 - 0.0117USA (Minnesota) Elephas columbi (93504 93505 93506 93508 93509 93510 93512 93513 93514 93515)
Pleistocene2.588 - 0.0117USA (Washington) Parelephas columbi (108787)
Pleistocene2.588 - 0.0117Nicaragua Mammuthus columbi (86963)
Pleistocene2.588 - 0.0117USA (California) Mammuthus columbi (183454)
Quaternary2.588 - 0.0Mexico (Santiago Chazumba) Mammuthus columbi (190088)
Irvingtonian1.8 - 0.3Canada (Alberta) Mammuthus columbi (20418)
Irvingtonian1.8 - 0.3USA (California) Mammuthus columbi (20386 20387 20409 20452 20527) Mammuthus sp. (20522)
Irvingtonian1.8 - 0.3USA (Arizona) Mammuthus imperator (20538)
Irvingtonian1.8 - 0.3USA (New Mexico) Mammuthus imperator (20339 20549)
Irvingtonian1.8 - 0.3USA (Oklahoma) Mammuthus columbi (20157)
Irvingtonian1.8 - 0.3USA (Montana) Mammuthus columbi (20310 20373)
Irvingtonian1.8 - 0.3USA (Nebraska) Mammuthus imperator (20143 20347 20375 20500)
Irvingtonian1.8 - 0.3USA (Kansas) Mammuthus columbi (20295 20353 20390) Mammuthus haroldcooki (20148) Mammuthus imperator (20516)
Irvingtonian1.8 - 0.3USA (Texas) Elephas columbi (20318 20420 20533) Elephas imperator (20530) Mammuthus imperator (20163 20412 20568)
Irvingtonian - Rancholabrean1.8 - 0.012USA (California) Mammuthus imperator (20323)
Middle Pleistocene0.781 - 0.126USA (Arizona) Mammuthus columbi (190076)
Middle Pleistocene0.781 - 0.126USA (Nebraska) Archidiskodon imperator, Parelephas columbi (34382)
Rancholabrean0.3 - 0.012USA (Florida) Mammuthus columbi (20440)
Rancholabrean0.3 - 0.012USA (California) Mammuthus columbi (183460 192043 200313)
Rancholabrean0.3 - 0.012USA (Oklahoma) Mammuthus columbi (70136)
Late/Upper Pleistocene (late glacial)0.126 - 0.0117USA (Wyoming) Mammuthus columbi (79626)
Late/Upper Pleistocene (late glacial)0.126 - 0.0117Mexico (Sonora) Archidiskodon imperator (74471)
Late/Upper Pleistocene (high glacial)0.126 - 0.0117USA (Texas) Elephas columbi (93103)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.126 - 0.0117USA (Florida) Elephas columbi (34269 104046) Mammuthus columbi (154804) Mammuthus columbi, Mammuthus imperator (74292) Parelephas columbi (154773)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.126 - 0.0117Mexico (Hidalgo) Mammuthus columbi (190114 190115 190116)
Late/Upper Pleistocene (interglacial)0.126 - 0.0117Canada (British Columbia) Parelephas columbi (20632)
Late/Upper Pleistocene (interglacial)0.126 - 0.0117USA (Kansas) Mammuthus columbi (20605)
Late/Upper Pleistocene (interglacial)0.126 - 0.0117Canada (Alberta) Mammuthus columbi (20615)
Late/Upper Pleistocene (interglacial)0.126 - 0.0117USA (Georgia) Mammuthus columbi (20591 20613)
Late/Upper Pleistocene (interglacial)0.126 - 0.0117USA (Idaho) Mammuthus imperator (20569)
Late/Upper Pleistocene (interglacial)0.126 - 0.0117USA (Florida) Parelephas floridanus (20581)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.126 - 0.0117Canada (Saskatchewan) Mammuthus columbi (20590)
Late/Upper Pleistocene (high glacial)0.126 - 0.0117USA (South Dakota) Mammuthus columbi (93333)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.126 - 0.0117USA (Michigan) Mammuthus jeffersoni (63217 63218 63386 63388 63389 63390 63391 63392 63483)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.126 - 0.0117USA (Oregon) Elephas columbi (93251)
Late/Upper Pleistocene (late glacial)0.126 - 0.0117USA (Florida) Mammuthus columbi (154722)
Late/Upper Pleistocene (high glacial)0.126 - 0.0117USA (Montana) Mammuthus columbi (93182)
Late/Upper Pleistocene (interglacial)0.126 - 0.0117USA (California) Mammuthus columbi (20585 20609 20637)
Late/Upper Pleistocene (late glacial)0.126 - 0.0117USA (Utah) Mammuthus columbi (74478)
Late/Upper Pleistocene (interglacial)0.126 - 0.0117USA (Oklahoma) Mammuthus columbi (91527)
Late/Upper Pleistocene (high glacial)0.126 - 0.0117USA (Utah) Mammuthus columbi (109026)
Late/Upper Pleistocene (interglacial)0.126 - 0.0117USA (Utah) Mammuthus columbi (20641)
Late/Upper Pleistocene (late glacial)0.126 - 0.0117Mexico (Mexico) Mammuthus imperator (93639)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.126 - 0.0117USA (Virginia) Mammuthus columbi (103358)
Late/Upper Pleistocene (late glacial)0.126 - 0.0117USA (Oklahoma) Mammuthus columbi (74144)
Late/Upper Pleistocene (interglacial)0.126 - 0.0117USA (Colorado) Mammuthus imperator (20617)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.126 - 0.0117Honduras Mammuthus columbi (190753)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.126 - 0.0117USA (New Mexico) Parelephas columbi (93246)
Late/Upper Pleistocene (late glacial)0.126 - 0.0117USA (Arizona) Mammuthus columbi (79623 93275 93599)
Late/Upper Pleistocene (interglacial)0.126 - 0.0117USA (Texas) Mammuthus imperator (20603)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.126 - 0.0117USA (Kansas) Mammuthus columbi (37788)
Late/Upper Pleistocene (glacial)0.126 - 0.0117USA (Florida) Mammuthus imperator (154921)