Order Spariformes (ray-finned fish)

Actinopteri - Spariformes

Parent taxon: Percomorpharia according to R. Betancur-R et al. 2013

Sister taxa: Acanthuriformes, Acropomatidae, Caesionidae, Caproidae, Centrarchiformes, Centrogenyidae, Chaetodontidae, Cirrhitiformes, Emmelichthyidae, Enoplosidae, Ephippiformes, Epigonidae, Gerreidae, Haemulidae, Howellidae, Kuhliidae, Kyphosidae, Labriformes, Lateolabracidae, Leiognathidae, Lobotidae, Lophiiformes, Lutjanidae, Malacanthidae, Monodactylidae, Moronidae, Oplegnathidae, Pempheriformes, Percichthyidae, Perciformes, Polyprionidae, Pomacanthidae, Priacanthidae, Scatophagidae, Sciaenidae, Siganidae, Sillaginidae, Sinipercidae, Terapontidae, Tetraodontiformes, Uranoscopiformes

Subtaxa: Centracanthidae Lethrinidae Nemipteridae Sparidae

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Ecology: nektonic omnivore

Distribution:

• Quaternary of Australia (1 collection), France (1), Greece (1), Italy (3), the Marshall Islands (3), Spain (1), United States (3: Florida, Georgia)

• Pliocene of Angola (1), Italy (2), Libya (1), Morocco (1), Portugal (1), United States (3: Florida, North Carolina)

• Hemphillian of Costa Rica (1)

• Miocene of Algeria (3), Argentina (4), Austria (3), Colombia (1), Costa Rica (2), the Czech Republic (3), France (5), Germany (3), India (1), Indonesia (1), Italy (5), Japan (1), Kazakhstan (1), New Zealand (7), Panama (1), Poland (1), Portugal (1), Saudi Arabia (1), Slovakia (1), South Africa (1), Spain (8), Sri Lanka (2), Turkey (1), United States (7: California, Florida, Virginia)

• Oligocene to Miocene of New Zealand (1)

• Oligocene of Belgium (1), France (1), Germany (4), Hungary (3), New Zealand (2), Oman (2), United States (2: Louisiana, South Carolina)

• Eocene of Antarctica (2), France (1), Germany (1), Italy (1), Libya (1), Namibia (1), Nigeria (2), the United Kingdom (12), United States (2: Louisiana, Virginia)

• Paleocene of Denmark (3), Ukraine (1), United States (1: Alabama)

• Cretaceous of Argentina (1), Brazil (1), France (6)

Total: 139 collections including 228 occurrences

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