Toros-Menalla (TM 266) (Miocene of Chad)

Where: Chad (16.2° N, 17.5° E: paleocoordinates 16.0° N, 17.1° E)

• coordinate stated in text

• outcrop-level geographic resolution

When: Messinian (7.2 - 5.3 Ma)

• 5.2-7.4 Ma

•all terrestrial vertebrates are from "the middle part of the section (about 2m thick... informally named the anthracotheriid unit (AU)"

• group of beds-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: lacustrine; poorly lithified sandstone

• poorly cemented sandstone

Size class: macrofossils

Preservation: original phosphate

Collection methods: surface (in situ),

Primary reference: P. Vignaud, P. Duringer, H. T. Mackaye, A. Likius, C. Blondel, J.-R. Boisserie, L. Bonis, V. Elsenmann, M.-E. Etienne, D. Geraads, F. Guy, T. Lehmann, F. Lihoreau, N. L.-L. Martinez, C. Mourer-Chauvier, O. Otero, J.-C. Rage, M. Schuster, L. Viriot, A. Zazzo, and M. Brunet. 2002. Geology and paleontology of the Upper Miocene Toros-Menalla hominid locality, Chad. Nature 418:152-155 [M. Uhen/M. Uhen]more details

Purpose of describing collection: general faunal/floral analysis

PaleoDB collection 59839: authorized by Mark Uhen, entered by Mark Uhen on 18.04.2006

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

 Blattodea - Hodotermitidae
Hodotermitidae indet. Desneux 1904 termite
 Coleoptera - Scarabaeidae
Scarabaeidae indet. Latreille 1802 scarab beetle
 Teleostei -
Perciformes indet. Stirton 1953 perch-like fish
 Tetraodontiformes - Tetraodontidae
Tetraodon sp. Linnaeus 1758
 Teleostei -
 Siluriformes - Bagridae
Bagrus sp. Bosc 1816 naked catfish
 Characiformes - Alestidae
Hydrocynus sp. Cuvier 1816
 Osteoglossiformes - Gymnarchidae
Gymnarchus sp. Cuvier 1829 aba knifefish
 Polypteriformes - Polypteridae
Polypterus sp. Lacépède 1803 bichir
 Testudines - Trionychidae
Trionychidae indet. Gray 1825 softshell turtle
 Testudines - Pantestudinidae
Testudinidae indet. Batsch 1788 turtle
[entered as Testudinae indet.]
 Ciconiiformes - Ciconiidae
Ephippiorhynchus sp.2 Bonaparte 1855 stork
or Leptoptilos sp. A, small
Ephippiorhynchus tchoufour n. sp.2 Louchart et al. 2008 stork
 Suliformes - Anhingidae
Anhinga cf. pannonica2 Lambrecht 1916 darter
 Pseudosuchia - Gavialidae
Gavialidae indet. Adams 1854 archosaur
gen et sp. nov.
 Crocodylia - Crocodylidae
Euthecodon cf. nitriae Fortau 1920 crocodile
Crocodylus niloticus Laurenti 1768 Nile crocodile
 Squamata - Varanidae
Varanus sp. Merrem 1820 monitor lizard
 Squamata - Boidae
Python cf. sebae Gmelin 1789 rock python
 Squamata - Colubridae
Colubridae indet. Oppel 1811 colubrid snake
 Primates - Cercopithecidae
Colobinae indet. Blyth 1875 monkey
 Primates - Hominidae
Hominidae indet. Gray 1825 ape
gen. et sp. nov.
Sahelanthropus tchadensis n. gen. n. sp.1 Brunet et al. 2002 ape
 Rodentia - Muridae
 Rodentia - Sciuridae
Xerus sp. Hemprich and Ehrenberg 1833 African ground squirrel
 Rodentia - Hystricidae
Hystrix sp. Linnaeus 1758 porcupine
 Perissodactyla - Equidae
Hipparion cf. abudhabiense hipparionine horse
 Carnivora - Mustelidae
Lutrinae indet. Baird 1857 otter
 Carnivora - Felidae
Machairodus kabir n. sp.4 Peigne et al. 2005 cat
Machairodus cf. giganteus Wagner 1848 cat
 Carnivora - Herpestidae
"Galerella sanguinea" = Herpestes sanguineus3
"Galerella sanguinea" = Herpestes sanguineus3 Rüppell 1835 slender mongoose
 Carnivora - Hyaenidae
Hyaenidae indet. Gray 1821 hyaena
size of Proithitherium
Ictitherium sp. Wagner 1848 hyaena
size of I. taurinum
 Tubulidentata - Orycteropodidae
Orycteropus cf. gaudryi Forsyth Major 1888 aardvark
 Proboscidea - Gomphotheriidae
Anancus kenyensis MacInnes 1942 gomphothere
 Proboscidea - Elephantidae
Loxodonta sp. Cuvier 1825 elephant
Lukeino stage
 Ungulata - Suidae
"Nyanzachoerus syrticus" = Sivachoerus syrticus
"Nyanzachoerus syrticus" = Sivachoerus syrticus Leonardi 1954 pig
 Ungulata - Hippopotamidae
Hexaprotodon sp. Falconer and Cautley 1836 pygmy hippo
sp. nov.
 Ungulata - Anthracotheriidae
Libycosaurus petrocchii Bonnarelli 1947 anthracothere
 Ungulata - Giraffidae
Giraffidae indet. Gray 1821 giraffe
Sivatherium cf. hendeyi Harris 1976 giraffe
 Ungulata - Bovidae
Bovini indet. Gray 1821 antelope
aff. Palaeoryx sp. Gaudry 1861 antelope
Antilopini indet. Gray 1821 antelope
Hippotragini indet. Sundevall 1845 antelope
gen. et sp. nov.
Kobus sp. Smith 1840 antelope