Lee Creek Mine, Yorktown Formation (Pliocene of the United States)

Where: Beaufort County, North Carolina (35.4° N, 76.8° W: paleocoordinates 35.4° N, 75.9° W)

• coordinate estimated from map

• outcrop-level geographic resolution

When: Yorktown Formation (Chesapeake Group), Zanclean (5.3 - 3.6 Ma)

• most fossils "are derived from the lower beds of the Yorktown Formation" (McLellan 1983) and the "total thickness of the Yorktown exposure is 15 m" (Snyder et al. 1983)

•Strontium dating places the base of the Yorktown Formation at 4.9 Ma [55]. The top of the Yorktown Formation at Lee Creek Mine is no younger than the middle of the Orionina vaughani ostracod assemblage zone, originally dated to ca. 3.7 Ma [53]. This is roughly in agreement with the top of nannoplankton zone NN14 (3.9 Ma) [20, 54], the second of the three nannoplankton zones correlating with the Orionina vaughani zone [53]. Taken together, these observations indicate an age bracket of 4.9–3.9 Ma. (Marx & Fordyce, 2015)

• member-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: estuary or bay; unlithified, blue, argillaceous, muddy sandstone

• the lower part of the formation in the Lee Creek Mine was deposited in an embayment "at depths of 80 to 100 meters" whereas "in the Lee Creek Mine, middle beds of the Yorktown accumulated in water of 30 meters or less" (Gibson 1983)
• bluish clayey sand

•"The Yorktown Formation at Lee Creek... is generally a very muddy quartz sand... shell material and cemented sediment comprise less than 3 percent of

•most samples" although there is a "boulder bed" at the top of the formation and a single zone of "extensively leached, partially indurated zone that contains abundant molds of turritellid gastropods and cemented clumps of sediment (Snyder et al. 1983)

Size classes: macrofossils, mesofossils, microfossils

Preservation: original phosphate

Collection methods: bulk, salvage, surface (float), sieve

• "Most [large] fossils are collected by prospecting the spoil piles" (McLellan 1983) but forams were collected through bulk sampling and washing with detergent and not acid (Snyder et al. 1983)

Primary reference: F. C. Whitmore. 1987. Cetacea from the Sahabi Formation, Libya. Neogene Paleontology and Geology of Sahabi 145-151 [M. Uhen/M. Uhen/M. Uhen]more details

Purpose of describing collection: taxonomic analysis

PaleoDB collection 52582: authorized by Mark Uhen, entered by Mark Uhen on 11.08.2005, edited by Jenna David

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

 Chilostomellacea - Gavelinellidae
 Rotaliina - Cassidulinidae
 Planorbulinacea - Cibicididae
 Buliminacea - Buliminidae
 Discorbacea - Discorbidae
 Discorbacea - Rosalinidae
 Rotaliacea - Elphidiidae
 Rotaliina -
 Nonionacea - Nonionidae
 Rotaliina - Bolivinidae
 Globigerinaceae - Globigerinidae
Globigerinoides obiquus26
subspecies obliquus
Globigerinoides quadrilobatus26
subspecies quadrilobatus
Globigerinoides obliquus26 Bolli 1957
subspecies extremus
Globigerinoides ruber26 d'Orbigny 1839
Globigerinoides conglobatus26 Brady 1879
subspecies conglobatus
Globigerina calida26
subspecies praecalida
Globigerina bulloides26 d'Orbigny 1826
subspecies apertura
Sphaeroidinellopsis subdehiscens26
subspecies subdehiscens
Orbulina suturalis26 Bronnimann 1951
Globoquadrina altispira26 Cushman and Jarvis 1936
subspecies globosa
 Globigerinaceae - Globorotaliidae
Globorotalia hexagona26
subspecies hexagona
Globorotalia (Globorotalia) crassula26 Cushman and Stewart 1930
Hastigerina siphonifera26
subspecies siphonifera
"Globorotalia (Turborotalia) acostaensis" = Neogloboquadrina acostaensis26 Blow 1959
subspecies acostaensis
 Globigerinina - Hedbergellidae
 Nodosariacea - Nodosariidae
Lagena substriata12 Williamson 1848
 Podocopida -
Campylocythere laeva11 Edwards 1944 ostracod
 Podocopida - Paracyprididae
Paracypris "b"11 ostracod
 Podocopida - Paradoxostomatidae
 Podocopida - Xestoleberididae
Xestoleberis "e"11 Sars 1866 ostracod
 Podocopida - Hemicytheridae
Aurila laevicula11 ostracod
Echinocythereis leecreekensis11 Hazel 1983 ostracod
Caudites paraasymmetricus11 Hazel 1983 ostracod
Muellerina "p"11 Bassiouni 1965 ostracod
Muellerina ohmerti11 Hazel 1983 ostracod
Muellerina wardi11 Hazel 1983 ostracod
Muellerina blowi11 Hazel 1983 ostracod
Muellerina bassiounii11 Hazel 1983 ostracod
Malzella conradi11 Howe et al. 1935 ostracod
angulate form
Malzella evexa11 Hazel 1983 ostracod
Thaerocythere carolinensis11 Hazel 1983 ostracod
Hermanites ascitus11 Hazel 1983 ostracod
Puriana convoluta11 ostracod
Puriana carolinensis11 Hazel 1983 ostracod
 Podocopida - Cytheruridae
 Podocopida - Trachyleberididae
Actinocythereis mundorffi11 ostracod
small form
Actinocythereis captionis11 Hazel 1983 ostracod
Proteoconcha multipunctata11 ostracod
sensu lato
Proteoconcha "z"11 Howe 1961 ostracod
Proteoconcha jamesensis11 Hazel 1983 ostracod
Bensonocythere "m"11 Hazel 1967 ostracod
Bensonocythere "oo"11 Hazel 1967 ostracod
Bensonocythere "pp"11 Hazel 1967 ostracod
Bensonocythere "qq"11 Hazel 1967 ostracod
Bensonocythere "rr"11 Hazel 1967 ostracod
Bensonocythere blackwelderi11 Hazel 1983 ostracod
Bensonocythere rugosa11 Hazel 1983 ostracod
Bensonocythere gouldensis11 Hazel 1983 ostracod
Bensonocythere ricespitensis11 Hazel 1983 ostracod
Bensonocythere bradyi11 Hazel 1983 ostracod
Neocaudites variabilus11 Hazel 1983 ostracod
Neocaudites angulatus11 Hazel 1983 ostracod
 Podocopida - Bythocytheridae
Bythocythere "b"11 ostracod
 Podocopida - Cytherideidae
Eucythere gibba11 ostracod
Eucythere "f"11 Brady 1868 ostracod
Peratocytheridea "j"11 Hazel 1983 ostracod
Peratocytheridea setipunctata11 Brady 1869 ostracod
Peratocytheridea sandbergi11 Hazel 1983 ostracod
Cytheridea carolinensis11 Hazel 1983 ostracod
Cytheridea campwallacensis11 Hazel 1983 ostracod
 Podocopida -
Orionina vaughani11 Ulrich and Bassler 1904 ostracod
Cytherura howei11 ostracod
Cytherura sp.11 ostracod
Cytherura "aa"11 ostracod
Cytherura "bb"11 ostracod
Cytherura "d"11 ostracod
Cytherura "l"11 ostracod
Cytherura "m"11 ostracod
Cytherura "n"11 ostracod
Cytherura "u"11 ostracod
Cytherura "w"11 ostracod
Cytherura wardensis11 Howe and Brown 1935 ostracod
Cytherura elongata11 Edwards 1944 ostracod
Cytherura forulata11 Edwards 1944 ostracod
Murrayina barclayi11 ostracod
Leptocythere "e"11 ostracod
Leptocythere "f"11 ostracod
Cyprideis "b"11 Jones 1857 ostracod
 Podocopida - Bairdiidae
 Podocopida -
Propontocypris d11 ostracod
"Pontocythere" "i"11 ostracod
"Pontocythere" "g"11 ostracod
"Pontocythere" "j"11 ostracod
"Pontocythere" "d"11 ostracod
Hulingsina glabra11 ostracod
Hulingsina "c"11 ostracod
Hulingsina "f"11 ostracod
Hulingsina "r"11 ostracod
Hulingsina "u"11 ostracod
Paracyprideis "c"11 ostracod
 Platycopida - Cytherellidae
Cytherelloidea "a"11 Alexander 1929 ostracod
Cytherella "a"11 Jones 1849 ostracod
Cytherella "b"11 Jones 1849 ostracod
 Podocopa - Cytheridae
Microcytherura "d"11 Muller 1894 ostracod
Microcytherura "h"11 Muller 1894 ostracod
Microcytherura "m"11 Muller 1894 ostracod
Microcytherura "p"11 Muller 1894 ostracod
Microcytherura "r"11 Muller 1894 ostracod
Microcytherura expanda11 Hazel 1983 ostracod
Microcytherura minuta11 Hazel 1983 ostracod
Cytheromorpha "i"11 Hirschmann 1909 ostracod
Cytheromorpha macroincisa11 Hazel 1983 ostracod
Cytheromorpha incisa11 Hazel 1983 ostracod
Cytheromorpha warneri11 Howe and Spurgeon 1935 ostracod
Cytheromorpha suffolkensis11 Hazel 1983 ostracod
 Podocopa - Paracytherideidae
Paracytheridea "f"11 Muller 1894 ostracod
Paracytheridea cronini11 Hazel 1983 ostracod
Paracytheridea mucra11 Edwards 1944 ostracod
 Podocopa - Loxoconchidae
Loxoconcha "c"11 Sars 1866 ostracod
Loxoconcha "h"11 Sars 1866 ostracod
Loxoconcha "m"11 Sars 1866 ostracod
Loxoconcha "s"11 Sars 1866 ostracod
Loxoconcha "t"11 Sars 1866 ostracod
Loxoconcha reticularis11 Edwards 1944 ostracod
? Hirschmannia hespera11 Hazel 1983 ostracod
? Hirschmannia quadrata11 Hazel 1983 ostracod
 Pectinida - Pectinoidae
Chesapecten jeffersonius9 Say 1824 scallop
subspecies jeffersonius & spetenarius
Chesapecten madisonius9 Say 1824 scallop
"Argopecten eboreus" = Carolinapecten eboreus9 Conrad 1833 scallop
subspecies watsonensis & solarioides
Placopecten aff. magellanicus9 Gmelin 1791 scallop
Placopecten clintonius9 Say 1824 scallop
subspecies clintonius
 Cardiida - Veneridae
Mclelannia aenigma36 venus clam
 Squaliformes - Dalatiidae
Isistius sp.21 Gill 1864 elasmobranch
 Squatiniformes - Squatinidae
Squatina sp.21 Dumeril 1806 angel shark
 Odontaspidida - Alopiidae
Alopias vulpinus21 Bonnaterre 1788 thresher shark
 Odontaspidida - Carcharodontidae
"Isurus hastalis" = Cosmopolitodus hastalis21, "Isurus xiphodon" = Cosmopolitodus hastalis21
"Isurus hastalis" = Cosmopolitodus hastalis21 Agassiz 1843 elasmobranch
"Isurus xiphodon" = Cosmopolitodus hastalis21 Agassiz 1843 elasmobranch
 Plagiostomi - Squalidae
Squalus sp.21 Linnaeus 1758 dogfish shark
 Rajiformes - Rajidae
Raja sp.21 Linnaeus 1758 skate
 Rhinopristiformes - Pristidae
? Pristis sp.21 Linck 1790 sawfish
Pristis cf. pectinatus21 Latham 1794 sawfish
 Myliobatiformes - Dasyatidae
Dasyatis centroura21 Mitchill 1814 whiptail stingray
 Myliobatiformes - Myliobatidae
? Mobula sp.21 Rafinesque 1810 devil ray
Manta sp.21 Bancroft 1829 manta
Aetobatus sp.21 Blainville 1816 eagle ray
 Echinorhiniformes - Echinorhinidae
Echinorhinus cf. blakei21 Agassiz 1856 shark
 Lamniformes - Otodontidae
Parotodus benedenii21, "Carcharodon megalodon" = Otodus megalodon21
Parotodus benedenii21 Le Hon 1871 mackerel shark
"Carcharodon megalodon" = Otodus megalodon21 Agassiz 1843 megalodon
Also studied in Pimiento et al. 2010 and in Pimiento and Balk
 Lamniformes - Lamnidae
Isurus oxyrinchus21 Rafinesque 1810 mako shark
Carcharodon carcharias21 Linnaeus 1758 great white shark
Lamna sp.21 Cuvier 1816 mackerel shark
"Carcharias cuspidata" = Lamna cuspidata21 Agassiz 1843 mackerel shark
 Lamniformes - Megachasmidae
Megachasma sp.21 Taylor et al. 1983 mackerel shark
 Lamniformes - Odontaspididae
Carcharias taurus21 Rafinesque 1810 sand shark
 Carchariniformes - Carcharhinidae
Negaprion brevirostris21 Poey 1868 lemon shark
"Galeocerdo cf. cuvier" = Galeocerdo cuvieri21 Peron and LeSueur 1822 tiger shark
Carcharhinus obscurus21 Le Sueur 1818 requiem shark
Carcharhinus perezi21 Poey 1876 requiem shark
Carcharhinus macloti21 Muller and Henle 1839 requiem shark
Carcharhinus leucas21 Valenciennes 1839 requiem shark
Carcharhinus plumbeus21 Nardo 1827 requiem shark
 Carchariniformes - Sphyrnidae
Sphyrna zygaena21 Linnaeus 1758 hammerhead shark
Sphyrna lewini21 Griffith and Smith 1834 hammerhead shark
Sphyrna cf. media21 Springer 1940 hammerhead shark
 Carchariniformes - Hemigaleidae
Paragaleus sp.21, "Hemipristis serra" = Hemipristis heteropleurus21
Paragaleus sp.21 Budker 1935 ground shark
"Hemipristis serra" = Hemipristis heteropleurus21 Agassiz 1844 ground shark
 Carchariniformes - Triakidae
Galeorhinus cf. affinis21 Probst 1878 school shark
  - Scyllidae
Scyliorhinus sp.21 Blainville 1816 shark
 Hexanchiformes - Hexanchidae
Hexanchus sp.21 Rafinesque 1810 sixgill shark
 Acipenseriformes - Acipenseridae
Acipenser cf. oxyrhynchus21 Mitchell 1814 sturgeon
 Anguilliformes - Congridae
Congridae indet.7 Kaup 1856 conger eel
Species A, B, C, D, E
Conger cf. oceanicus21 Mitchill 1818 conger eel
 Albuliformes - Pterothrissidae
Pterothrissus sp.7 Hilgendorf 1877 bonefish
 Scorpaeniformes - Triglidae
Prionotus sp.7 Lacépède 1802 sea robin
Prionotus cf. evolans21 Linnaeus 1766 sea robin
 Istiophoriformes - Xiphiidae
Xiphias gladius21 Linnaeus 1758 sword fish
 Istiophoriformes - Istiophoridae
Istiophorus platypterus6 Shaw and Nodder 1792
Tetrapturus albidus6 Poey 1860
Makaira purdyi6 Fierstine 1999
Makaira purdyi n. sp.5 Fierstine 1999
Makaira indica6 Cuvier 1832
Makaira nigricans6 Lacépède 1802
 Carangiformes - Carangidae
Seriola sp.21 Cuvier 1817
 Acanthomorphata - Sphyraenidae
Sphyraena cf. barracuda21 Edwards 1771 barracuda
 Pleuronectiformes - Pleuronectidae
 Pleuronectiformes - Cynoglossidae
Symphurus sp.7 flatfish
 Pleuronectiformes - Paralichthyidae
Paralichthys sp.21 Girard 1858 flatfish
Citharichthys sp.7 Bleeker 1862 flatfish
 Scombriformes - Scombridae
Acanthocybium solandri21 Cuvier 1831
Sarda aff. sarda21 Bloch 1791
Thunnus sp.21 South 1845
Thunnus thynnus23 Linnaeus 1758
Auxis sp.21 Cuvier 1829
 Scombriformes - Pomatomidae
 Ophidiiformes - Ophididae
 Ophidiiformes - Ophidiidae
 Batrachoidiformes - Batrachoididae
Opsanus tau21 toadfish
 Perciformes - Serranidae
Serranidae indet.7 Swainson 1839 perch-like fish
species A, B
Centropristis cf. striata7 perch-like fish
Mycteroperca sp.21 Gill 1862 perch-like fish
Epinephelus sp.21 Bloch 1793 perch-like fish
 Perciformes - Sparidae
Stenotomus cf. chrysops21 Linnaeus 1766 perch-like fish
Lagodon cf. rhomboides21 Linnaeus 1766 perch-like fish
 Perciformes - Agonidae
? Agonidae indet.7 perch-like fish
 Perciformes - Branchiostegidae
Caulolatilus cf. cyanops21 Poey 1866 perch-like fish
 Acanthomorphata - Haemulidae
 Acanthomorphata - Sciaenidae
Sciaenidae indet.7 Cuvier 1828
Pogonias cf. cromis7 Cope 1869 black drum
Sciaenops sp.21 Gill 1863
Sciaenops cf. ocellata7 Linnaeus 1766
Sciaenops ocellatus21 Linnaeus 1766
Micropogonias sp.7 Bonaparte 1831
Leiostomus sp.7 Lacépède 1802
 Uranoscopiformes - Uranoscopidae
 Uranoscopiformes - Ammodytidae
Ammodytes hexapterus7 Pallas 1814
 Spariformes - Sparidae
Pagrus sp.21 Lacépède 1802
Pagrus hyneus21 Purdy et al. 2001
 Lophiiformes - Lophiidae
Lophius cf. americanus21 Valenciennes 1837 anglerfish
 Acanthomorphata - Malacanthidae
 Labriformes - Labridae
 Tetraodontiformes - Molidae
Mola chelonopsis21 Ichishima and Kimura 2009
 Tetraodontiformes - Tetraodontidae
Sphoeroides hyperostosus21 Tyler et al. 1992
 Tetraodontiformes - Diodontidae
Chilomycterus schoepfi21 Walbaum 1792
 Tetraodontiformes - Monacanthidae
Aluterus sp.21 Cloquet 1816 Leatherjacket
 Gadiformes - Gadidae
 Gadiformes - Merlucciidae
 Myctophiformes - Myctophidae
Ceratoscopelus maderensis7 Lowe 1839 Madeira lantern fish
 Clupeiformes - Clupeoidei
Alosa cf. sapidissima21 Wilson 1811 hering
 Siluriformes - Ariidae
Bagre sp.21 Mitchill 1815 Ariid catfish
 Testudines - Dermochelyidae
Psephophorus sp.37 von Meyer 1847 leatherback
 Testudines - Cheloniidae
? Chelonia sp.37 Brongniart 1800 green sea turtle
Lepidochelys sp.37 Fitzinger 1843 Ridley sea turtle
Syllomus aegyptiacus37 Lydekker 1899 sea turtle
Caretta patriciae37 Zug 2001 loggerhead
 Testudines - Trionychidae
cf. Apalone sp.37 Rafinesque 1832 softshell turtle
 Testudines - Pancheloniidae
Procolpochelys sp.37 Hay 1908 turtle
 Testudines - Pantestudinidae
Geochelone sp.37 Fitzinger 1835 turtle
 Testudines - Panemydidae
Chrysemys sp.37 Gray 1844 painted turtle
 Charadriiformes - Laridae
"Sterna aff. nilotica" = Gelochelidon nilotica20, "Larus aff. atricilla" = Leucophaeus atricilla20, Larus ribibundus20, Larus sp.20, Larus aff. delawarensis20, Larus aff. argentatus20, "Larus aff. minutus" = Hydrocoloeus minutus20, "Sterna aff. maxima" = Thalasseus maximus20
"Sterna aff. nilotica" = Gelochelidon nilotica20 Gmelin 1789 gull-billed tern
"Larus aff. atricilla" = Leucophaeus atricilla20 Linnaeus 1758 laughing gull
Larus ribibundus20 gull
Larus sp.20 Linnaeus 1758 gull
Larus aff. delawarensis20 Ord 1815 ring-billed gull
Larus aff. argentatus20 Pontoppidan 1763 herring gull
"Larus aff. minutus" = Hydrocoloeus minutus20 Pallas 1776 little gull
"Sterna aff. maxima" = Thalasseus maximus20 Boddaert 1783 royal tern
 Charadriiformes - Scolopacidae
Numenius aff. borealis20 Forster 1772 eskimo curlew
Calidris aff. melanotos20 Vieillot 1819 pectoral sandpiper
"Capella aff. media" = Gallinago media20 Latham 1787 great snipe
Tringa aff. ochropus20 Linnaeus 1758 green sandpiper
 Charadriiformes - Haematopodidae
Haematopus sp.30 Linnaeus 1758 oystercatchers
Haematopus aff. ostralegus20 Linnaeus 1758 Eurasian oystercatcher
Haematopus aff. palliatus20 Temminick 1820 American oystercatcher
 Charadriiformes - Panalcidae
Aethiinae indet.20 Verheyen 1958 auk
Cerorhinca sp.25 Bonaparte 1828 auk
Pinguinus alfrednewtoni n. sp.18 Olson 1977 Great auk
Miocepphus mergulellus n. sp.35 Wijnker and Olson 2009 auk
Alca sp.20 Linnaeus 1758 auk
undescribed new species
Alca aff. torda20 Linnaeus 1758 razorbill
Alca minor n. sp.24 Smith and Clarke 2011 auk
Alca carolinensis n. sp.24 Smith and Clarke 2011 auk
Alca ausonia20 Portis 1887 auk
"Alca antiqua" = Alca grandis20 Brodkorb 1955 auk
Alca olsoni n. sp.24 Smith and Clarke 2011 auk
Fratercula aff. arctica20 Linnaeus 1758 Atlantic puffin
Fratercula aff. cirrhata20 Pallas 1769 tufted puffin
 Charadriiformes - Charadriidae
Pluvialis aff. squatarola20 Linnaeus 1758 black-bellied plover
 Charadriiformes - Stercorariidae
Stercorarius aff. pomarinus20 Temminck 1815 pomarine jaeger
Stercorarius aff. longicaudus20 Vieillot 1819 long-tailed jaeger
Stercorarius aff. parasiticus20 Linnaeus 1758 parasitic jaeger
"Catharacta sp." = Stercorarius20 Brisson 1760 skua
 Cathartiformes - Cathartidae
"Vulturidae indet." = Cathartidae20
"Vulturidae indet." = Cathartidae20 Lafresnaye 1839 vulture
 Ornithurae - Pelagornithidae
Pelagornis "speciesone"20 Lartet 1857 bird
Pelagornis "speciestwo"20 Lartet 1857 bird
 Galliformes - Phasianidae
Meleagris sp.20 Linnaeus 1758 turkey
 Anseriformes - Anatidae
"Anas americana" = Mareca americana20 Gmelin 1789 American wigeon
Histrionicus aff. histrionicus20 Linnaeus 1758 harlequin duck
Anserini indet.20 Vigors 1825 goose
Anser cf. arizonae20 Bickart 1990 goose
Branta aff. bernicla20 Linnaeus 1758 brant
Cygnus aff. columbianus20 Ord 1815 tundra swan
"Anas discors" = Spatula discors20 Linnaeus 1766 blue-winged teal
"Anas clypeata" = Spatula clypeata20 Linnaeus 1758 northern shoveler
Mergus aff. serrator20 Linnaeus 1758 red-breasted merganser
Bucephala aff. clangula20 Linnaeus 1758 common goldeneye
Bucephala aff. albeola20 Linnaeus 1758 bufflehead
Melanitta aff. nigra20 Linnaeus 1758 common scoter
Melanitta aff. perspicillata20 Linnaeus 1758 surf scoter
Somateria sp.20 Leach 1819 eider
Somateria aff. mollissima20 Linnaeus 1758 common eider
Aythya aff. affinis20 Eyton 1838 lesser scaup
Anas platyrhynchos20 Linnaeus 1758 mallard
Anas acuta20 Linnaeus 1758 northern pintail
 Columbiformes - Columbidae
Ectopistes aff. migratorius20 Linnaeus 1758 passenger pigeon
 Passeriformes - Corvidae
Corvus aff. ossifragus20 Wilson 1812 fish crow
 Gruiformes - Gruidae
Grus aff. americana20, "Grus aff. antigone" = Antigone antigone20
Grus aff. americana20 Linnaeus 1758 Whooping crane
"Grus aff. antigone" = Antigone antigone20 Linnaeus 1758 Sarus crane
 Gaviiformes - Gaviidae
Gavia howardae20 Brodkorb 1953 loon
Gavia concinna20 Wetmore 1940 loon
Gavia fortis n. sp.20 Olson and Rasmussen 2001 loon
 Podicipediformes - Podicipedidae
"Podiceps aff. auritus" = Podiceps auritus20, "Podiceps howardae" = Podiceps auritus27
"Podiceps aff. auritus" = Podiceps auritus20 Linnaeus 1758 horned grebe
"Podiceps howardae" = Podiceps auritus27 Linnaeus 1758 horned grebe
 Procellariiformes - Diomedeidae
Phoebastria anglica20 Lydekker 1891 albatross
Phoebastria aff. immutabilis20 Rothschild 1839 albatross
Phoebastria aff. albatrus20 Pallas 1769 short-tailed albatross
Phoebastria aff. nigripes20 Audubon 1839 albatross
Phoebastria rexularum20 Olson and Rasmussen 2001 albatross
 Procellariiformes - Procellariidae
Pachyptila sp.20 Illiger 1811 prion
? Bulweria sp.20 Bonaparte 1843 petrel
possibly from Pungo River Fm. instead of Yorktown
Calonectris krantzi n. sp.20 Olson and Rasmussen 2001 shearwater
Calonectris aff. diomedea20 Scopoli 1769 Cory's shearwater
"Calonectris aff. borealis" = Calonectris diomedea borealis20 Cory 1891 Cory's shearwater
Puffinus sp.20 Brisson 1760 shearwater
Puffinus (Thyellodroma) sp.20 Brisson 1760 shearwater
Puffinus (Ardenna) sp.20 Brisson 1760 shearwater
Puffinus lherminieri20 Lesson 1839 Audubon's shearwater
Puffinus cf. puffinus20 Brunnich 1764 Manx shearwater
Puffinus aff. pacificoides20 Olson 1975 shearwater
Pterodroma lessonii20 Garnot 1826 white-headed petrel
Pterodromoides minoricensis20 Segui et al. 2001 petrel
Procellaria cf. aequinoctialis20 Linnaeus 1758 white-chinned petrel
Procellaria cf. parkinsoni20 Gray 1862 Parkinson's petrel
"Puffinus aff. gravis" = Ardenna gravis20 O'Reilly 1818 great shearwater
"Puffinus aff. tenuirostris" = Ardenna tenuirostris20 Temminck 1823 short-tailed shearwater
 Pelecaniformes - Ardeidae
Ardea aff. cinerea20 Linnaeus 1758 gray heron
 Pelecaniformes - Threskiornithidae
Eudocimus sp.20 Wagler 1832 ibis
 Pelecaniformes - Pelecanidae
Pelecanus schreiberi n. sp.19 Olson 1999 pelican
 Ciconiiformes - Ciconiidae
Ciconia "speciestwo"20 Brisson 1760 stork
 Phoenicopteriformes - Phoenicopteridae
Phoenicopterus cf. floridanus20 Brodkorb 1953 flamingo
 Accipitriformes - Accipitridae
Accipitridae indet.20 Viellot 1816 hawk
species one and two
? Buteo sp.20 de Lacepède 1799 hawk
Buteo jamaicensis20 Gmelin 1788 red-tailed hawk
? Neophrontops sp.20 Miller 1916 hawk
 Accipitriformes - Pandionidae
Pandion sp.20 Savigny 1809 osprey
 Suliformes - Phalacrocoracidae
Phalacrocorax "largespecies"20 Brisson 1760 cormorant
Phalacrocorax wetmorei20 Brodkorb 1955 cormorant
 Suliformes - Sulidae
Morus "undescribedspeciesone"20 Vieillot 1816 gannet
Morus "undescribedspeciestwo"20 Vieillot 1816 gannet
Morus loxostylus20 Cope 1870 gannet
Morus atlanticus20 Shufeldt 1915 gannet
Morus avitus20 Wetmore 1938 gannet
Morus peninsularis20 Brodkorb 1955 gannet
 Perissodactyla - Rhinocerotidae
Rhinocerotidae indet.4 Gray 1821 rhinoceros
 Perissodactyla - Tapiridae
Tapirus sp.4 Brisson 1762 tapir
 Perissodactyla - Equidae
Nannippus lenticularis4 Cope 1893 hipparionine horse
Neohipparion cf. eurystyle4 Cope 1893 hipparionine horse
 Ferae -
Carnivora indet.4 Bowditch 1821 carnivoran
 Carnivora - Ursidae
Ursidae indet.4 Gray 1825 bear
 Carnivora - Odobenidae
Ontocetus emmonsi15 Leidy 1859 walrus
 Carnivora - Phocidae
Monachinae indet.1 Trouessart 1897 seal
"Callophoca obscura" = Callophoca obscura22 Van Beneden 1876 seal
"Callophoca ambigua" = Callophoca obscura22 Van Beneden 1876 seal
Homiphoca capensis16 Hendey and Repenning 1972 seal
Auroraphoca atlantica n. gen. n. sp.3 Dewaele et al. 2018 seal
Paleophoca nystii22 Van Beneden 1859 seal
Phocanella pumila22 Van Beneden 1876 seal
Gryphoca similis16 Van Beneden 1876 seal
Platyphoca vulgaris22 Van Beneden 1876 seal
 Carnivora - Canidae
Borophagus cf. dudleyi4 White 1941 bone-crushing dog
Borophagus cf. orc4 Webb 1969 bone-crushing dog
 Carnivora - Felidae
Felidae indet.4 Gray 1821 cat
 Phyllophaga -
 Proboscidea - Gomphotheriidae
Gomphotherium sp.4 Burmeister 1837 gomphothere
 Ungulata - Tayassuidae
Tayassuidae indet.4 Palmer 1897 peccary
 Ungulata - Camelidae
Camelidae indet.4 Gray 1821 camel
 Ungulata - Protoceratidae
Kyptoceras amatorum4 Webb 1981 protoceratid
 Ungulata - Palaeomerycidae
Pediomeryx sp.4 Stirton 1936 ruminant
 Ungulata - Antilocapridae
Antilocapridae indet.4 Gray 1866 pronghorn
 Cetacea - Balaenopteridae
Balaenoptera acutorostrata32 Lacépède 1804 minke whale
Balaenoptera cf. acutorostrata34 Lacépède 1804 minke whale
Balaenoptera borealina32 Van Beneden 1880 rorqual
Balaenoptera borealina34 Van Beneden 1880 rorqual
Megaptera sp.32 Gray 1846 humpback whale
Megaptera sp.34 Gray 1846 humpback whale
cf. Plesiocetus sp.34 Van Beneden 1859 rorqual
 Cetacea - Balaenidae
Balaenula sp.32 Van Beneden 1872 right whale
Balaenula sp.34 Van Beneden 1872 right whale
Balaena sp.32 Linnaeus 1758 bowhead whale
Balaena sp.34 Linnaeus 1758 bowhead whale
 Cetacea - Cetotheriidae
Herpetocetinae indet.33 Steeman 2007 whale
Herpetocetus sendaicus2 Hatai et al. 1963 whale
Herpetocetus transatlanticus n. sp.33 Whitmore and Barnes 2008 whale
Cetotheriinae indet.34 Whitmore and Barnes 2008 whale
 Cetacea - Eschrichtiidae
Gricetoides aurorae n. gen. n. sp.34
Gricetoides aurorae n. gen. n. sp.34 Whitmore and Kaltenbach 2008 gray whale
 Cetacea - Kogiidae
Kogiidae indet.29 Miller 1923 pygmy sperm whale
Kogiinae indet.32 Gill 1871 pygmy sperm whale
Kogiinae indet.34 Gill 1871 pygmy sperm whale
cf. Kogia breviceps34 Blainville 1838 pygmy sperm whale
Figure 85
Aprixokogia kelloggi n. gen. n. sp.34 Whitmore and Kaltenbach 2008 pygmy sperm whale
 Cetacea - Physeteridae
Physeteridae indet.34 Gray 1821 sperm whale
several hundred sperm whale teeth
cf. Kogiopsis floridana34 Kellogg 1929 sperm whale
Figure 86
"cf. Physeter catodon" = Physeter macrocephalus34 Linnaeus 1758 sperm whale
Figure 88
"cf. Physeterula dubusii" = Physeterula dubusi34 Van Beneden 1877 sperm whale
Figure 89
cf. Orycterocetus sp.34 Leidy 1853 sperm whale
Figure 84
Physeterinae indet.32 Flower 1867 sperm whale
Physeterinae indet.34 Flower 1867 sperm whale
 Cetacea -
cf. Scaldicetus sp.34 Du Bus 1867 toothed whale
Figure 91
 Cetacea - Delphinidae
Delphinidae indet.13 Gray 1821 dolphin
cf. Delphinidae indet.13 Gray 1821 dolphin
Pseudorca sp.32 Reinhardt 1862 false killer whale
Pseudorca sp.34 Reinhardt 1862 false killer whale
Globicephala sp.32 Lesson 1828 pilot whale
Globicephala sp.34 Lesson 1828 pilot whale
aff. Lagenorhynchus sp. Gray 1846 dolphin
Lagenorhynchus sp.34 Gray 1846 dolphin
Lagenorhynchus harmatuki n. sp.34 Whitmore and Kaltenbach 2008 dolphin
cf. Delphinus sp.32 Linnaeus 1758 common dolphin
Delphinus sp.34 Linnaeus 1758 common dolphin
Tursiops sp.32 Gervais 1855 dolphin
Tursiops sp.34 Gervais 1855 dolphin
Stenella sp.32 Gray 1866 dolphin
cf. Stenella sp.34 Gray 1866 dolphin
Stenella rayi n. sp.34 Whitmore and Kaltenbach 2008 dolphin
 Cetacea - Monodontidae
Bohaskia monodontoides28 Velez-Juarbe and Pyenson 2012 toothed whale
previously identified as Delphinapterus sp. by Whitmore and Kaltenbach, 2008
cf. Monodon sp.13 Linnaeus 1758 narwhal
Delphinapterus sp.32 Lacépède 1804 beluga
Delphinapterus sp.34 Lacépède 1804 beluga
cf. Delphinapterus sp.13 Lacépède 1804 beluga
 Cetacea - Pontoporiidae
Pontoporiidae indet.13 Gray 1870 toothed whale
cf. Pontoporiidae indet.13 Gray 1870 toothed whale
Auroracetus bakerae n. gen. n. sp.10 Gibson and Geisler 2009 toothed whale
Pliopontos littoralis17 Muizon 1983 toothed whale
cf. Pontoporia sp.34 Gray 1846 toothed whale
 Cetacea - Ziphiidae
Ziphius cf. cavirostris32 Cuvier 1824 Cuvier's beaked whale
Ziphius cf. cavirostris34 Cuvier 1824 Cuvier's beaked whale
Mesoplodon longirostris32 Cuvier 1824 beaked whale
Mesoplodon longirostris34 Cuvier 1824 beaked whale
Ninoziphius cf. platyrostris34 Muizon 1983 beaked whale
aff. Ninoziphius platyrostris13 Muizon 1983 beaked whale
Ninoziphius platyrostris17 Muizon 1983 beaked whale
 Ophiurida - Ophiuridae
? Ophiuridae indet.31 Lyman 1865 brittle star
 Arbacioida - Arbaciidae
Arbacia improcera14 Conrad 1843 sea urchin
Arbacia cf. sloani31 Clark and Twitchell 1915 sea urchin
 Camarodonta - Echinidae
Psammechinus philanthropus14 Conrad 1843 sea urchin
 Spatangoida - Loveniidae
Echinocardium kelloggi14 Kier 1983 heart urchin
 Clypeasteroida - Mellitidae
Encope macrophora31 Ravenel 1842 sand dollar
 Pinales - Cupressaceae
 Pinales - Pinaceae
 Pinales - Taxodiaceae
Taxodium distichum12 Richard 1810 bald cypress