Gar El Muluk Hill (Pliocene to of Egypt)

Also known as Gar El Muluk Formation, Gar El Muluk Hill

Where: Al Buhayrah, Egypt (30.4° N, 30.3° E: paleocoordinates 30.2° N, 30.1° E)

• coordinate estimated from map

• local area-level geographic resolution

When: Gar El Muluk Formation, Early/Lower Pliocene to Early/Lower Pliocene (5.3 - 2.6 Ma)

• The formation consists of 35 m (115 ft) of shales, calcareous sandstones and thin limestone beds. It has been assigned a lower to upper Pliocene age. The succession includes, in an ascending order: 1) black carbonaceous shales, GREEN SANDY MICACEOUS SHALES; 2) cross-bedded sandstones and shales; 3) a 30 cm thick bed of calcareous sandstones; 4) a 10 m interval composed of green sands and shales; 5) a 10 cm limestone bed; 6) dark shales and green gypsiferous sands with chert pebbles and gypsum breccia.

• group of beds-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: deltaic; poorly lithified, micaceous, green shale

• A fluvio-marine sequence formed during the earliest deltas of the paleo-Nile. Collection is marine, however.
• Green, sandy micaceous shales.

Size class: macrofossils

Collection methods: No detailed collection data reported.

Primary reference: E. E. Tawadros. 2001. Geology of Egypt and Libya 1-468 [A. Miller/A. Hendy/M. Clapham]more details

Purpose of describing collection: general faunal/floral analysis

PaleoDB collection 42119: authorized by Austin Hendy, entered by Austin Hendy on 23.07.2004, edited by Mark Uhen

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

• Collection based on taxa listed in text as typical of formation. Includes only one mollusca, although plant fragments and fish bones are also mentioned.
 Planorbulinacea - Planulidae
 Discorbacea - Rosalinidae
 Discorbacea - Eponididae
Eponides sp. Montfort 1808
 Rotaliacea - Rotaliidae
 Nonionacea - Nonionidae
Nonion sp. Monfort 1808
 Globigerinaceae - Globigerinidae
"Globorotalia obesa" = Globigerinella obesa Bolli 1957
Globigerina calida
subspecies praecalida
Globigerina bulloides d'Orbigny 1826
Orbulina universa d'Orbigny 1839
 Globigerinaceae - Globorotaliidae
"Globorotalia acostaensis" = Neogloboquadrina acostaensis
"Globorotalia acostaensis" = Neogloboquadrina acostaensis Blow 1959
 Nodosariacea - Nodosariidae
Nodosaria sp. Lamarck 1812
 Podocopida -
 Platycopida - Cytherellidae
Cytherella sp. Jones 1849 ostracod
 Ostreida - Ostreidae
"Ostrea cucullata" = Saccostrea cuccullata
"Ostrea cucullata" = Saccostrea cuccullata Born 1778 oyster
 Testudines - Trionychidae
Trionyx sp. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire 1809 softshell turtle
 Struthioniformes - Struthionidae
Struthio sp. Linnaeus 1758 ostrich
 Crocodylia - Crocodylidae
"Crocodilus sp." = Crocodylus
"Crocodilus sp." = Crocodylus Laurenti 1768 crocodile
 Sirenia -
 Primates - Cercopithecidae
 Rodentia - Muridae
 Lagomorpha - Leporidae
? Lepus sp. Linnaeus 1758 hare
 Perissodactyla - Equidae
Hipparion sp. de Christol 1832 hipparionine horse
 Carnivora - Phocidae
Pristiphoca sp. Gervais 1853 seal
 Carnivora - Mustelidae
Lutra sp. Brisson 1762 otter
 Carnivora - Felidae
 Carnivora - Hyaenidae
Hyaena sp. Brisson 1762 hyaena
 Ungulata - Suidae
Sivachoerus sp. Pilgrim 1926 pig
 Ungulata - Hippopotamidae
Hippopotamus sp. Linnaeus 1758 hippo
 Ungulata - Giraffidae
Libytherium sp. Pomel 1892 giraffe
Samotherium sp. Forsyth Major 1888 giraffe
 Ungulata - Bovidae
 Miliolida - Miliolidae
 Miliolida - Hauerinidae