James T. Thomas estate (Miocene of the United States)

Where: Charles County, Maryland (38.5° N, 76.7° W: paleocoordinates 38.7° N, 73.4° W)

• coordinate estimated from map

When: Calvert Beach Member (Calvert Formation), Langhian (16.0 - 13.8 Ma)

• Cope refers to the beds as "Yorktown" but they are much more likely to be Calvert Formation since the Yorktown is not thought to crop out in Maryland, DN5

•Age and Member after Weems and Edwards (2007).

• bed-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: offshore shelf; lithology not reported

• sparse molluscs, low in diversity; subtropical environment in embayment and dry onshore; area not far from shore, bay, short-term eustatic transgression events, long-term regression trend

Size classes: macrofossils, mesofossils

Preservation: original phosphate

Primary reference: E. D. Cope. 1867. An addition to the vertebrate fauna of the Miocene period, with a synopsis of the extinct Cetacea of the United States. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 19(4):138-157 [M. Uhen/M. Uhen/M. Carrano]more details

Purpose of describing collection: taxonomic analysis

PaleoDB collection 55396: authorized by Mark Uhen, entered by Mark Uhen on 14.10.2005, edited by Austin Hendy

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

 Sessilia - Balanidae
"Balanus proteus" = Chesaconcavus proteus, Balanus vulcanellus n. sp.
"Balanus proteus" = Chesaconcavus proteus Conrad 1834 barnacle
Balanus vulcanellus n. sp. barnacle
 Craniida - Craniidae
"Orbicula lububris" = Novocrania
"Orbicula lububris" = Novocrania
 Arcida - Arcidae
 Arcida - Glycymerididae
Glycymeris americana5, "Axinaea lentiformis" = Glycymeris
Glycymeris americana5 Defrance 1826 clam
"Axinaea lentiformis" = Glycymeris clam
 Arcida - Noetiidae
 Pectinida - Pectinoidae
"Pecten jeffersonius" = Chesapecten jeffersonius, "Pecten madisonius" = Chesapecten madisonius, Pecten humphreysii, "Pecten cerinus n. sp." = Eburneopecten cerinus, "Pecten virginianus" = Placopecten virginiana, "Pecten marylandicus" = Placopecten marylandica, "Pecten clintonius" = Placopecten clintonius
"Pecten jeffersonius" = Chesapecten jeffersonius Say 1824 scallop
"Pecten madisonius" = Chesapecten madisonius Say 1824 scallop
Pecten humphreysii Conrad 1842 scallop
"Pecten cerinus n. sp." = Eburneopecten cerinus Conrad 1869 scallop
"Pecten virginianus" = Placopecten virginiana Conrad 1840 scallop
"Pecten marylandicus" = Placopecten marylandica Wagner 1839 scallop
"Pecten clintonius" = Placopecten clintonius Say 1824 scallop
 Pectinida - Anomiidae
 Ostreida - Ostreidae
Ostreidae indet.1 Rafinesque 1815 oyster
Ostrea trachydiscus n. sp. oyster
 Ostreida - Malleidae
 Ostreida - Pinnidae
Pinna sp. Linnaeus 1758 oyster
 Carditida - Astartidae
Astarte undata5 Gould 1841 clam
Astarte cuneiformis Conrad 1840 clam
Astarte perplana Conrad 1840 clam
 Carditida - Crassatellidae
"Crassatella melina" = Marvacrassatella melina, "Crassatella marylandica" = Marvacrassatella marylandica
"Crassatella melina" = Marvacrassatella melina Conrad 1832 clam
"Crassatella marylandica" = Marvacrassatella marylandica Conrad 1832 clam
 Carditida - Carditidae
Cyclocardia granulata, "Carditamera protracta" = Cardita protracta
Cyclocardia granulata Say 1824 clam
"Carditamera protracta" = Cardita protracta Conrad 1843 clam
 Pholadida - Corbulidae
Corbula pectorosa n. sp., "Corbula idonea" = Bicorbula idonea
Corbula pectorosa n. sp. clam
"Corbula idonea" = Bicorbula idonea Conrad 1833 clam
 Cardiida - Chamidae
Chama corticosa jewel box
 Cardiida - Glossidae
"Isocardia markoii" = Glossus, "Isocardia fraterna" = Glossus fraterna
"Isocardia markoii" = Glossus clam
"Isocardia fraterna" = Glossus fraterna Say 1824 clam
 Cardiida - Veneridae
Mercenaria staminea, Mercenaria cuneata n. sp., Dosinia acetabulum, "Dione staminaea" = Hysteroconcha, "Dione marylandica" = Hysteroconcha
Mercenaria cuneata n. sp. Conrad 1869 quahog
Dosinia acetabulum Conrad 1832 venus clam
"Dione staminaea" = Hysteroconcha venus clam
"Dione marylandica" = Hysteroconcha venus clam
 Cardiida - Tellinidae
"Metis biplicata" = Florimetis biplicata
"Metis biplicata" = Florimetis biplicata Conrad 1834 tellin clam
 Cardiida - Cardiidae
"Cardium laqueatum" = Chesacardium laqueatum
"Cardium laqueatum" = Chesacardium laqueatum Conrad 1830 cockle
 Lucinida - Lucinidae
"Lucina americana" = Divalinga quadrisulcata, "Lucina foremani" = Stewartia foremani, "Lucina contracta" = Lucinoma contracta
"Lucina americana" = Divalinga quadrisulcata d'Orbigny 1846 clam
"Lucina foremani" = Stewartia foremani Conrad 1841 clam
"Lucina contracta" = Lucinoma contracta Say 1824 clam
 Ptenoglossa - Epitoniidae
Scala pachypleura Conrad 1841 wentletrap
 Neogastropoda - Muricidae
Ecphora quadricostata Conrad 1830 murex snail
 Naticoidea - Naticidae
 Tonnoidea - Ranellidae
"Bursa centrosa n. sp." = Tritonium centrosum
"Bursa centrosa n. sp." = Tritonium centrosum Cope 1867 triton
 Sorbeoconcha - Turritellidae
"Turritella alticostata" = Turritella (Turritella) alticostata Conrad 1834 turret shell
Turritella indenta Conrad 1841 turret shell
 Fissurelloidea - Fissurellidae
"Fissurella redimicula" = Diodora redimicula
"Fissurella redimicula" = Diodora redimicula Say 1824 snail
 Plagiostomi -
"Raja dux" = Trygon dux
"Raja dux" = Trygon dux Cope 1867 elasmobranch
 Myliobatiformes - Myliobatidae
Myliobatis gigas Cope 1868 eagle ray
Myliobatis pachyodon Cope 1868 eagle ray
Myliobatis vicomicanus Cope 1868 eagle ray
"Aetobatis arcuatus" = Aetobatis irregularis6 Agassiz 1843 eagle ray
Aetobatis profundus n. sp. Cope 1867 eagle ray
Aetobatus arcuatus Agassiz 1843 eagle ray
[entered as Aetobatis arcuatus]
 Lamniformes - Otodontidae
"Carcharodon megalodon" = Otodus megalodon, Otodus obliquus, "Carcharodon ? angustidens" = Otodus (Carcharocles) angustidens
"Carcharodon megalodon" = Otodus megalodon Agassiz 1843 megalodon
Otodus obliquus Agassiz 1843 mackerel shark
"Carcharodon ? angustidens" = Otodus (Carcharocles) angustidens Agassiz 1843 mackerel shark
 Lamniformes - Lamnidae
Lamna cuspidata Agassiz 1843 mackerel shark
Lamna denticulata Agassiz 1843 mackerel shark
 Lamniformes - Mitsukurinidae
"Lamna ? subulata" = Scapanorhynchus subulatus
"Lamna ? subulata" = Scapanorhynchus subulatus Agassiz 1843 goblin shark
 Lamniformes - Cretoxyrhinidae
"Otodus appendiculatus" = Cretolamna appendiculata
"Otodus appendiculatus" = Cretolamna appendiculata Agassiz 1843 mackerel shark
 Lamniformes - Odontaspididae
"Lamna hopei" = Odontaspis hopei, "Lamna elegans" = Odontaspis macrota
"Lamna hopei" = Odontaspis hopei Agassiz 1843 sand tiger shark
"Lamna elegans" = Odontaspis macrota Agassiz 1843 sand tiger shark
 Carchariniformes - Carcharhinidae
"Galeocerdo egertoni" = Carcharias (Prionodon) egertoni Eastman 1904 blue shark
Galeocerdo sp. Müller and Henle 1837 tiger shark
Galeocerdo contortus Gibbes 1848 tiger shark
Galeocerdo aduncus Agassiz 1843 tiger shark
Galeocerdo latidens Agassiz 1843 tiger shark
 Carchariniformes - Sphyrnidae
Sphyrna sp., Sphyrna magna, "Galeocerdo laevissimus n. sp." = Sphyrna laevissima, Sphyrna prisca
Sphyrna sp. Rafinesque 1810 hammerhead shark
Sphyrna magna Cope 1868 hammerhead shark
"Galeocerdo laevissimus n. sp." = Sphyrna laevissima Cope 1867 hammerhead shark
Sphyrna prisca Agassiz 1843 hammerhead shark
 Carchariniformes - Hemigaleidae
"Hemipristis serra" = Hemipristis heteropleurus
"Hemipristis serra" = Hemipristis heteropleurus Agassiz 1844 ground shark
 Hexanchiformes - Hexanchidae
"Notidanus plectrodon n. sp." = Notorynchus cepedianus, Notidanus primigeneus
"Notidanus plectrodon n. sp." = Notorynchus cepedianus Peron 1807 cow shark
 Acanthomorphata - Sphyraenidae
"Sphyraena speciosa" = Dictyodus speciosus
"Sphyraena speciosa" = Dictyodus speciosus Leidy 1856 barracuda
 Testudines - Cheloniidae
Chelone sp. Linnaeus 1758 sea turtle
 Testudines - Pantrionychidae
Trionyx cellulosus Cope 1868 turtle
 Procellariiformes - Procellariidae
Puffinus sp.9, "Puffinus conradi n. sp." = Ardenna conradi7
Puffinus sp.9 Brisson 1760 shearwater
"Puffinus conradi n. sp." = Ardenna conradi7 Marsh 1870 petrel
 Crocodylia -
Thecachampsa sericodon n. sp., "Thecachampsa contusor n. sp." = Thecachampsa antiquus
Thecachampsa sericodon n. sp. Cope 1867 crocodilian
ANSP 9443-9445 - type
"Thecachampsa contusor n. sp." = Thecachampsa antiquus Leidy 1852 crocodilian
ANSP 9152 - type
 Cetacea -
"Megaptera expansa n. sp." = Eschrichtius expansus3
"Megaptera expansa n. sp." = Eschrichtius expansus3 Cope 1868 whale
 Cetacea - Balaenopteridae
? Balaenoptera cephalus8 Cope 1867 rorqual
 Cetacea - Cetotheriidae
"Delphinapterus tyrannus n. sp." = Cetotherium parvum3
"Delphinapterus tyrannus n. sp." = Cetotherium parvum3 Trouessart 1898 whale
 Cetacea -
"Balaenoptera pusilla n. sp." = Eschrichtius pusillus4, Squalodon wymanii n. sp., Priscodelphinus spinosus n. sp.3
"Balaenoptera pusilla n. sp." = Eschrichtius pusillus4 Cope 1868 whale
Squalodon wymanii n. sp. Cope 1867 toothed whale
it is not clear which locality Squalodon wymanii is from. Only described as Miocene of Charles County, MD.
Priscodelphinus spinosus n. sp.3 Cope 1868 toothed whale
 Cetacea - Platanistidae
Zarhachis flagellator n. gen. n. sp.3
Zarhachis flagellator n. gen. n. sp.3 Cope 1868 toothed whale
 Cetacea - Physeteridae
Orycterocetus crocodilinus Cope 1867 sperm whale
 Cetacea -
"Delphinapterus ruschenbergeri n. sp." = Tretosphys ruschenbergeri3, "Delphinapterus lacertosus n. sp." = Tretosphys lacertosus3, "Delphinapterus hawkinsii n. sp." = Tretosphys lacertosus3, Delphinapterus gabbii n. sp.3, Priscodelphinus acutidens n. sp., Priscodelphinus stenus n. sp.3, Priscodelphinus atropius n. sp.3, Cetophis heteroclitus n. gen. n. sp.3, Rhabdosteus latiradix n. gen. n. sp.2, Ixacanthus coelospondylus n. gen. n. sp.3
"Delphinapterus ruschenbergeri n. sp." = Tretosphys ruschenbergeri3 Cope 1868 toothed whale
"Delphinapterus lacertosus n. sp." = Tretosphys lacertosus3 Cope 1868 toothed whale
"Delphinapterus hawkinsii n. sp." = Tretosphys lacertosus3 Cope 1868 toothed whale
Delphinapterus gabbii n. sp.3 Cope 1868 toothed whale
Priscodelphinus acutidens n. sp. Cope 1867 toothed whale
Priscodelphinus stenus n. sp.3 Cope 1868 toothed whale
Priscodelphinus atropius n. sp.3 Cope 1868 toothed whale
Cetophis heteroclitus n. gen. n. sp.3 Cope 1868 toothed whale
Rhabdosteus latiradix n. gen. n. sp.2 Cope 1867 toothed whale
Ixacanthus coelospondylus n. gen. n. sp.3 Cope 1868 toothed whale
 Scleractinia - Acroporidae
"Madrepora palmata" = Acropora palmata
"Madrepora palmata" = Acropora palmata Lamarck 1816 stony coral
Crassatella undulata
"Crassatella undulata" = Kalolophus antillarum
"Crassatella undulata" = Kalolophus antillarum Reeve 1842
 Peridiniales - Peridiniaceae
Spiniferites sp.8 Mantell 1850
Spiniferites mirabilis8 Sarjeant 1970
 Gonyaulacales -
Reticulatosphaera actinocoronata8 Bujak and Matsuoka 1986
Operculodinium centrocarpum
Tuberculodinium vancampoae