Calta (Pliocene of Turkey)

Where: Ankara, Turkey (39.9° N, 32.9° E: paleocoordinates 39.9° N, 32.9° E)

• coordinate based on nearby landmark

When: Ruscinian (5.3 - 3.2 Ma)

• Dated using microfauna to the lower part of MN15 (Late Ruscinian) approx. 4Ma, Pliocene.

Environment/lithology: "floodplain"

• 'Four main depositional environments wewre recognised: 1. distal alluvial fan, 2. fluvial channel, 3. overbank and floodplain, 4. pond environment. The main fossil beds occur in the floodplain and ponded deposits at levels that show the best developed paleosols.1

Size classes: macrofossils, mesofossils

Collection methods: bulk,

Primary reference: S. Sen, G. Bouvrain, and D. Geraads. 1998. Pliocene vertebrate locality of Calta, Ankara, Turkey. 12. Paleoecology, biogeography and biochronology. Geodiversitas 20(3):497-510 [A. Turner/H. O'Regan/H. O'Regan]more details

Purpose of describing collection: paleoecologic analysis

PaleoDB collection 34370: authorized by Alan Turner, entered by Hannah O'Regan on 28.08.2003

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

• Fauna adapted to relatively dry and open environments with some water, as frogs and water shrews are present. Isotopic work indicates an open and probably steppic environment.
 Salientia - Pelobatidae
Pelobates sp. Wagler 1830 spadefoot toad
 Salientia - Ranidae
Rana sp. Linnaeus 1758 frog
 Salientia - Bufonidae
Bufo cf. viridis Laurenti 1768 European green toad
Bufo sp. cf. B. viridis
 Testudines - Pantestudinidae
Testudo sp. Linnaeus 1758 turtle
 Struthioniformes - Struthionidae
Struthio sp.4 Linnaeus 1758 ostrich
morphologically close to Struthio asiaticus
 Squamata - Lacertidae
Lacertidae indet. Bonaparte 1831 squamates
 Squamata - Varanidae
Varanus marathonensis Weithofer 1888 monitor lizard
 Squamata - Anguidae
Ophisaurus sp. Daudin 1803 glass lizard
 Squamata - Boidae
Eryx sp. Daudin 1803 true sand boa
 Squamata - Elapidae
"Palaeonaja sp." = Naja
"Palaeonaja sp." = Naja Laurenti 1768 cobra
 Squamata - Colubridae
Colubridae indet. Oppel 1811 colubrid snake
 Squamata -
Scolecophidia indet. Duméril and Bibron 1844 snake
 Squamata - Amphisbaenidae
 Squamata - Scincidae
Scincidae indet. Gray 1825 skink
 Rodentia - Muridae
Centralomys magnus6 Sen 1977 mouse
Apodemus dominans6 Eurasian field mouse
4 molars
Occitanomys sp.6 Michaux 1969 mouse
6 isolated teeth
Pseudomeriones tchaltaensis6 gerbil
57% of rodent remains
 Rodentia - Cricetidae
Mimomys davakosi6 van de Weerd 1979 vole
Mesocricetus cf. primitivus6 de Bruijn et al. 1970 mouse
Mesocricetus sp. cf. M. primitivus
 Rodentia - Spalacidae
Pliospalax macoveii6 Simionescu 1930 blind mole
16% of rodent remains
 Rodentia - Gliridae
Dryomimus eliomyoides6 Kretzoi 1959 dormouse
2 upper M2
 Lagomorpha - Ochotonidae
Ochotonoma anatolica n. gen. n. sp.6
Ochotonoma anatolica n. gen. n. sp.6 pika
 Perissodactyla - Rhinocerotidae
"Dicerorhinus megarhinus" = Dihoplus megarhinus3
"Dicerorhinus megarhinus" = Dihoplus megarhinus3 de Christol 1835 rhinoceros
 Perissodactyla - Equidae
Hipparion heintzi hipparionine horse
Hipparion cf. longipes Gromova 1952 hipparionine horse
Hipparion sp. cf. H. longipes
 Tribosphenida - Soricidae
Soricidae indet.5 Fischer 1814 shrew
Mafia csarnotense5 red-toothed shrew
 Carnivora - Canidae
 Carnivora - Felidae
Machairodus giganteus Wagner 1848 cat
Lynx issiodorensis Croizet and Jobert 1828 lynx
 Carnivora - Hyaenidae
Chasmaporthetes kani hyaena
Chasmaporthetes kani anatolicus
 Ungulata - Suidae
Sus arvernensis2 pig
Sus arvernensis minor
 Ungulata - Giraffidae
Giraffa cf. jumae Leakey 1967 giraffe
Giraffa sp. cf. G. jumae
 Ungulata - Bovidae
Bovidae indet.1 Gray 1821 antelope
Bovidae indet. cf. Koufotragus bailloudi, 1 horncore, 1 maxilla fragment, 1 mandible fragment and a lower P4.
? Gazellospira sp.1 Pilgrim and Schaub 1939 antelope
Tchaltacerus longicornis n. gen. n. sp.1 Bouvrain 1998 antelope
Hippotragini indet.1 Sundevall 1845 antelope
Gazella emilii n. sp.1 Bouvrain 1998 gazelle
 Ungulata - Cervidae
Cervus cf. perrieri deer
Cervus sp. cf. C. perrieri
 Theriiformes -
Erinaceus sp.5 Linnaeus 1758 mammal