Little Box Elder Cave (Pleistocene of the United States)

Also known as LBEC

Where: Converse County, Wyoming (42.8° N, 105.7° W: paleocoordinates 42.8° N, 105.7° W)

• coordinate estimated from map

• small collection-level geographic resolution

When: Late/Upper Pleistocene (0.1 - 0.0 Ma)

• "late Pleistocene (Wisconsin)"

Environment/lithology: cave; lithology not reported

Size class: macrofossils

Collected by H. G. Rodeck in 1948, 1949, 1952, 1956; reposited in the UCM

Primary reference: C. A. Long. 1971. Significance of the late Pleistocene fauna from the Little Box Elder Cave, Wyoming, to studies of zoogeography of recent mammals. Great Basin Naturalist 31(2):93-105 [J. Alroy/J. Alroy]more details

Purpose of describing collection: general faunal/floral analysis

PaleoDB collection 93277: authorized by John Alroy, entered by John Alroy on 12.01.2010, edited by Richard Hulbert

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

• "Remains of at least 60 species of mammals, five of which are extinct, have been reported from the cave"
Aves
 Charadriiformes - Laridae
cf. Larus sp.3 Linnaeus 1758 gull
 Charadriiformes - Scolopacidae
Numenius borealis3 Forster 1772 eskimo curlew
Numenius americanus3 Bechstein 1812 long-billed curlew
Calidris melanotos3 Vieillot 1819 pectoral sandpiper
"Capella gallinago" = Gallinago gallinago3 Linnaeus 1758 common snipe
 Charadriiformes - Charadriidae
Charadrius montanus3 Townsend 1837 mountain plover
Charadrius vociferus3 Linnaeus 1758 killdeer
 Galliformes - Phasianidae
"Lagopus cf. leucurus" = Lagopus leucura3 Richardson 1831 white-tailed ptarmigan
Dendragapus obscurus3 Say 1823 dusky grouse
Centrocercus urophasianus3 Bonaparte 1827 greater sage-grouse
Tympanuchus phasianellus3 Linnaeus 1758 sharp-tailed grouse
 Anseriformes - Anatidae
Branta canadensis2 Linnaeus 1758 Canada goose
"Anas clypeata" = Spatula clypeata2 Linnaeus 1758 northern shoveler
Mergus merganser2 Linnaeus 1758 common merganser
Aythya collaris2 Donovan 1809 ring-necked duck
Anas sp.2 Linnaeus 1758 dabbling duck
"A. discors or A. cyanoptera" plus "Anas spp."
Anas platyrhynchos2 Linnaeus 1758 mallard
Anas crecca2 Linnaeus 1758 Eurasian teal
Anas schneideri n. sp.2 Emslie 1985 dabbling duck
Anas acuta2 Linnaeus 1758 northern pintail
 Falconiformes - Falconidae
Falco mexicanus3 Schlegel 1850 Prairie falcon
Falco rusticolus3 Linnaeus 1758 gyrfalcon
Falco sparverius3 Linnaeus 1758 American kestrel
Falco columbarius3 Linnaeus 1758 merlin
Polyborus plancus3 Miller 1777 southern caracara
 Strigiformes - Strigidae
Asio flammeus3 Pontoppidan 1763 short-eared owl
Asio otus3 Linnaeus 1758 long-eared owl
Bubo virginianus3 Gmelin 1788 great horned owl
"Nyctea scandiaca" = Bubo scandiacus3 Linnaeus 1758 snowy owl
Aegolius funereus3 Linnaeus 1758 boreal owl
Aegolius acadicus3 Gmelin 1788 northern saw-whet owl
Surnia ulula3 Linnaeus 1758 northern hawk owl
 Columbiformes - Columbidae
Zenaida macroura3 Linnaeus 1758 mourning dove
Ectopistes migratorius3 Linnaeus 1758 passenger pigeon
 Piciformes - Picidae
Colaptes auratus3 Linnaeus 1758 northern flicker
 Passeriformes - Troglodytidae
cf. Salpinctes obsoletus3 Say 1822 rock wren
 Passeriformes - Icteridae
Agelaius phoeniceus3 Linnaeus 1766 red-winged blackbird
Euphagus cyanocephalus3 Wagler 1829 Brewer's blackbird
Euphagus magnirostris3 Miller 1929 large-billed blackbird
Sturnella sp.3 Vieillot 1816 meadowlark
Sturnella neglecta3 Audubon 1844 western meadowlark
cf. Quiscalus sp.3 Vieillot 1816 grackle
 Passeriformes - Laniidae
Lanius ludovicianus3 Linnaeus 1766 loggerhead shrike
 Passeriformes - Alaudidae
Eremophila alpestris3 Linnaeus 1759 horned lark
 Passeriformes - Corvidae
Pica pica3 Linnaeus 1758 Eurasian magpie
Corvus corax3 Linnaeus 1758 common raven
Corvus brachyrhynchos3 Brehm 1822 American crow
Nucifraga columbiana3 Wilson 1811 Clark's nutcracker
 Passeriformes - Fringillidae
Coccothraustes vespertinus3 Cooper 1825 evening grosbeak
Carduelis sp.3 Brisson 1760 finch
Leucosticte arctoa3 Pallas 1811 Asian rosy-finch
 Passeriformes - Hirundinidae
cf. Tachycineta bicolor3, "cf. Hirundo pyrrhonota" = Petrochelidon pyrrhonota3
cf. Tachycineta bicolor3 Vieillot 1808 tree swallow
"cf. Hirundo pyrrhonota" = Petrochelidon pyrrhonota3 Vieillot 1816 cliff swallow
 Passeriformes - Passerellidae
Pipilo chlorurus3 Audubon 1839 green-tailed towhee
cf. Junco hyemalis3 Linnaeus 1758 dark-eyed junco
Calamospiza melanocorys3 Stejneger 1885 lark bunting
Zonotrichia albicollis3 Gmelin 1789 white-throated sparrow
 Passeriformes - Turdidae
Sialia sp.3 Swainson 1827 bluebird
cf. Turdus migratorius3 Linnaeus 1758 American robin
 Passeriformes - Cardinalidae
Spiza americana3 Gmelin 1789 dickcissel
 Caprimulgiformes - Caprimulgidae
Chordeiles minor3 Forster 1771 common nighthawk
Phalaenoptilus nuttallii3 Audubon 1844 common poorwill
 Gruiformes - Gruidae
"Grus canadensis" = Antigone canadensis3
"Grus canadensis" = Antigone canadensis3 Linnaeus 1758 Sandhill crane
 Gruiformes - Rallidae
Porzana carolina3 Linnaeus 1758 sora
 Podicipediformes - Podicipedidae
Podiceps nigricollis3 Brehm 1831 black-necked grebe
 Accipitriformes - Accipitridae
Accipiter gentilis3 Linnaeus 1758 northern goshawk
Accipiter striatus3 Vieillot 1897 sharp-shinned hawk
Buteo sp.3 de Lacepède 1799 hawk
Buteo jamaicensis3 Gmelin 1788 red-tailed hawk
Buteo lagopus3 Pontoppidan 1763 rough-legged hawk
Buteo cf. regalis3 Gray 1844 ferruginous hawk
Buteogallus sp.3 Lesson 1830 black-hawks
Neophrontops americanus2 Miller 1916 hawk
Aquila chrysaetos3 Linnaeus 1758 golden eagle
Circus cyaneus3 Linnaeus 1766 hen harrier
Mammalia
 Rodentia - Cricetidae
"Phenacomys longicaudus" = Arborimus longicaudus True 1890 red tree vole
Dicrostonyx sp. Gloger 1841 lemming
"probably D. torquatus"
Microtus pennsylvanicus Ord 1815 meadow vole
 Rodentia - Sciuridae
Spermophilus variegatus Erxleben 1777 rock squirrel
 Lagomorpha - Ochotonidae
Ochotona princeps Richardson 1828 American pika
 Perissodactyla - Equidae
Equus conversidens1 Owen 1869 horse
 Tribosphenida - Soricidae
"Microsorex hoyi" = Sorex hoyi, Cryptotis sp.
"Microsorex hoyi" = Sorex hoyi Baird 1858 American pygmy shrew
Cryptotis sp. Pomel 1848 small-eared shrew
 Carnivora - Ursidae
Ursus arctos4 Linnaeus 1758 brown bear
Arctodus simus4 Cope 1879 giant short-faced bear
 Carnivora - Mustelidae
"Martes americana" = Mustela zibellina americana Kerr 1792 American marten
"Martes nobilis" = Mustela zibellina americana2 Kerr 1792 American marten
Mustela nigripes Audubon and Bachman 1851 black-footed ferret
Gulo gulo Linnaeus 1758 wolverine
Taxidea taxus Schreber 1778 American badger
possibly assigned by Anderson to T. marylandica, discussion makes this unclear
 Carnivora - Canidae
Vulpes vulpes Linnaeus 1758 red fox
Canis lupus Linnaeus 1758 gray wolf
 Carnivora - Felidae
"Felis concolor" = Puma concolor, "Panthera atrox" = Uncia atrox
"Felis concolor" = Puma concolor Linnaeus 1771 puma
"Panthera atrox" = Uncia atrox Leidy 1853 cat
 Ungulata - Camelidae
Camelops cf. hesternus2, "Tanupolama sp." = Hemiauchenia
Camelops cf. hesternus2 Leidy 1873 camel
referred to by Long as "Camelops"
"Tanupolama sp." = Hemiauchenia Gervais and Ameghino 1880 camel
 Ungulata - Bovidae
"Symbos sp." = Bootherium Harlan 1825 antelope
no species name given
Oreamnos sp. Rafinesque 1817 mountain goat
no species name given
Ovis canadensis Shaw 1804 bighorn sheep
 Ungulata - Cervidae
Alces alces Linnaeus 1758 moose
"questionable specimen"