Port Kennedy Cave (Pleistocene of the United States)

Where: Montgomery County, Pennsylvania (40.2° N, 75.3° W: paleocoordinates 40.2° N, 75.1° W)

• coordinate based on political unit

When: Irvingtonian (1.8 - 0.3 Ma)

Environment/lithology: cave; lithology not reported

Size class: macrofossils

Primary reference: J. W. Gidley and C. L. Gazin. 1938. The Pleistocene vertebrate fauna from Cumberland Cave, Maryland. United States National Museum Bulletin 171:1-99 [J. Alroy/J. Alroy/M. Uhen]more details

Purpose of describing collection: general faunal/floral analysis

PaleoDB collection 20479: authorized by John Alroy, entered by John Alroy on 18.02.1993, edited by Jered Karr, Jonathan Marcot, Terri Cleary, Evangelos Vlachos and Matthew Clapham

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

• new list of Daeschler 1996 is based on Gidley and Gazin and contains numerous errors and omissions
"? Myotis sp.": a bat; omitted by Daeschler 1996

"Vulpes latidentatus" is omitted by Daeschler 1996 and not discussed by Kurten and Anderson 1980 or other sources

"Sciurus calycinus" is omitted by Kurten and Anderson 1980

not clear what "Teleopternus orientalis" and "Odocoileus laevicornis" are; former is listed by Daeschler 1996

"Bison sp." is not present: Kurten and Anderson 1980
 Coleoptera - Scarabaeidae
Aphodius precursor n. sp.7 Horn 1876 scarab beetle
? Choeridium ebeninum n. sp.7 Horn 1876 scarab beetle
Phanaeus antiquus n. sp.7 Horn 1876 scarab beetle
 Coleoptera - Carabidae
Cychrus minor n. sp.7 Horn 1876 ground beetle
Cychrus wheatleyi n. sp.7 Horn 1876 ground beetle
Chlaenius punctulatus n. sp.7 Horn 1876 ground beetle
? Pterostichus sp.7 Bonelli 1810 ground beetle
Pterostichus laevigatus n. sp.11 Scudder 1890 ground beetle
Cymindis aurora n. sp.7 Horn 1876 ground beetle
Dicaelus sp.7 Bonelli 1813 ground beetle
Dicaelus alutaceus n. sp.7 Horn 1876 ground beetle
 Testudines -
"Geochelone percrassa n. sp." = Clemmys percrassus10
"Geochelone percrassa n. sp." = Clemmys percrassus10 Cope 1899 turtle
 Testudines - Panemydidae
"Clemmys insculpta" = Glyptemys insculpta10, "Toxaspis anguillulatus n. sp." = Terrapene eurypygia4, Terrapene carolina10, Emydoidea blandingii10
"Clemmys insculpta" = Glyptemys insculpta10 Le Conte 1830 wood turtle
"Toxaspis anguillulatus n. sp." = Terrapene eurypygia4 Cope 1870 box turtle
ANSP 155 (holotype), a partial carapace (Cope 1899, pl. 14.1; Hay 1908, fig. 469).
Terrapene carolina10 Linnaeus 1758 common box turtle
includes type of Toxaspis anguillulatus
Emydoidea blandingii10 Holbrook 1838 Blanding's turtle
 Squamata - Colubridae
Coluber sp.6 Linnaeus 1758 racer
"In 1871 Wheatley published a short paper reviewing briefly the fauna of the Port Kennedy Cave in which he listed two species of Coluber. No mention was made of the character of the material on which the identifications were based. It is presumed that one of the specimens so listed was later described as Coluber acuminatus by Cope, but the other insofar as the author can find, was not afterward mentioned in the literature. Since the specimen is apparently lost, the authenticity of the determination by Wheatley will always remain in doubt."
Coluber acuminatus n. sp.6 Cope 1899 racer
(Type lost, no number), fractured skull and 25 anterior thoracic vertebrae
Natrix sp.6 Laurenti 1768 water snake
Provisionally placed here. "Wheatley in 1871 reported Tropodonotus (Natrix) as being present in the Port Kennedy Cave fauna in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania. These specimens have now been lost. No mention of this genus was made by Cope in his subsequent papers discussing this fauna so that the presence of this genus in this fauna and in the fossil record rests entirely upon the evidence of Wheatley’s statement."
 Rodentia - Cricetidae
Arvicolinae indet.8, "Anaptogonia cloacina n. sp." = Ondatra idahoensis3, "Anaptogonia hiatidens n. sp." = Ondatra idahoensis, "Microtus diluvianus n. sp." = Neofiber diluvianus3, Peromyscus ? leucopus
Arvicolinae indet.8 Gray 1821 vole
"Anaptogonia cloacina n. sp." = Ondatra idahoensis3 Wilson 1933 muskrat
"Anaptogonia hiatidens n. sp." = Ondatra idahoensis Wilson 1933 muskrat
"Microtus diluvianus n. sp." = Neofiber diluvianus3 Cope 1896 mouse
Peromyscus ? leucopus Rafinesque 1818 white-footed mouse
omitted by Daeschler 1996
 Rodentia - Sciuridae
Marmota cf. monax5 Linnaeus 1758 groundhog
 Rodentia - Castoridae
Castor canadensis Kuhl 1820 American beaver
 Rodentia - Erethizontidae
Erethizon ? dorsatum Linnaeus 1758 North American porcupine
includes type of "E. cloacinum" referred to "Coendou sp." by White 1970: Frazier 1981
 Rodentia - Zapodidae
Zapus sp.8 Coues 1876 jumping mouse
 Lagomorpha - Leporidae
Sylvilagus floridanus Allen 1890 eastern cottontail
 Lagomorpha - Ochotonidae
? Ochotonidae indet.8 Thomas 1897 pika
"Praotherium" or "? Ochotona" palatina
 Lipotyphla - Talpidae
Scalopus sp. Geoffroy 1803 mole
omitted by Daeschler 1996
 Perissodactyla - Tapiridae
"Tapirus haysii" = Tapirus (Helicotapirus) haysii
"Tapirus haysii" = Tapirus (Helicotapirus) haysii Leidy 1860 tapir
includes type of "T. copei": see Ray and Sanders 1984
 Perissodactyla - Equidae
Equus complicatus Leidy 1858 horse
omitted by Daeschler 1996
Equus pectinatus Cope 1901 horse
 Tribosphenida - Soricidae
"Blarina simplicidens n. sp." = Blarina brevicauda
"Blarina simplicidens n. sp." = Blarina brevicauda Say 1823 northern short-tailed shrew
 Carnivora - Ursidae
"Euarctos americanus" = Ursus americanus, "Arctodus haplodon n. sp." = Arctodus pristinus, "Ursus haplodon n. sp." = Arctodus pristinus3
"Euarctos americanus" = Ursus americanus Pallas 1780 black bear
"Arctodus haplodon n. sp." = Arctodus pristinus Leidy 1854 bear
"Ursus haplodon n. sp." = Arctodus pristinus3 Leidy 1854 bear
 Carnivora - Mustelidae
Lontra canadensis1, "Martes diluviana" = Pekania diluviana, Gulo gulo1, Brachyprotoma obtusata n. sp., "Osmotherium spelaeum" = Osmotherium spelaeum, "Mephitis orthostichus n. sp." = Osmotherium spelaeum3, "Pelycictis lobulatus n. gen. n. sp." = Osmotherium spelaeum3, "Mephitis fossidens n. sp." = Osmotherium spelaeum3, Taxidea taxus
Lontra canadensis1 Schreber 1776 North American river otter
"Martes diluviana" = Pekania diluviana Cope 1889 mustelid carnivore
Gulo gulo1 Linnaeus 1758 wolverine
Brachyprotoma obtusata n. sp. Cope 1899 short-faced skunk
"Osmotherium spelaeum" = Osmotherium spelaeum Cope 1896 skunk
includes types of "Pelycictis lobulatus" and three other Cope species; "? Mephitis nigra" is of dubious provenance: Hall 1936
"Mephitis orthostichus n. sp." = Osmotherium spelaeum3 Cope 1896 skunk
"Pelycictis lobulatus n. gen. n. sp." = Osmotherium spelaeum3 Cope 1896 skunk
"Mephitis fossidens n. sp." = Osmotherium spelaeum3 Cope 1896 skunk
Taxidea taxus Schreber 1778 American badger
 Carnivora - Canidae
Canis sp.9 Linnaeus 1758 canine
Canis armbrusteri13 Gidley 1913 canine
Urocyon cinereoargenteus Schreber 1775 gray fox
 Carnivora - Felidae
"Smilodontopsis gracilis n. sp." = Smilodon gracilis, "Uncia mercerii n. sp." = Smilodon gracilis2, Lynx calcaratus n. sp., Panthera onca12
"Smilodontopsis gracilis n. sp." = Smilodon gracilis Cope 1880 saber-toothed cat
"Uncia mercerii n. sp." = Smilodon gracilis2 Cope 1880 saber-toothed cat
Lynx calcaratus n. sp. lynx
Panthera onca12 Linnaeus 1758 jaguar
also suggested by Simpson 1941b
 Carnivora - Hyaenidae
Crocuta inexpectatus n. sp.2 spotted hyaena
 Xenarthra - Megalonychidae
Megalonyx wheatleyi Cope 1871 edentate
includes "M. loxodon", "M. tortulus", and "M. scalper"
 Xenarthra - Mylodontidae
Paramylodon ? harlani1 Owen 1840 Harlan's ground sloth
 Proboscidea - Mammutidae
Mammut americanum Kerr 1792 American mastodon
 Ungulata - Tayassuidae
Mylohyus fossilis Leidy 1860 peccary
includes "M. pennsylvanicus" and "Platygonus tetragonus"; "M. nasutus" is listed by Daeschler 1993, 1996
 Ungulata - Cervidae
Odocoileus virginianus, "Cariacus laevicornis n. sp." = Dama laevicornis3
Odocoileus virginianus Zimmermann 1780 white-tailed deer
"Cariacus laevicornis n. sp." = Dama laevicornis3 Cope 1896 fallow deer