Melbourne No. 2 Bed (Pleistocene of the United States)

Where: Brevard County, Florida (28.1° N, 80.6° W: paleocoordinates 28.1° N, 80.6° W)

• coordinate based on nearby landmark

• small collection-level geographic resolution

When: Late/Upper Pleistocene (0.1 - 0.0 Ma)

• "probably early-Pleistocene" according to Allen, but Wisconsinan according to later workers

• bed-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: fluvial; siliciclastic sediments

• "stream deposits... [comprise] an upper, somewhat barren layer (No. 3 bed) lying uncomforably upon an older deposit rather in rich in fossil bones (the 'bone bed', No. 2). Below these is a layer of coquina (No. 1 bed) believed to be of Pleistocene age."

Size class: macrofossils

Collected by C. P. Singleton, J. W. Gildley, F. B. Loomis in 1922 - 1923; reposited in the MCZ

Collection methods: quarrying

Primary reference: G. M. Allen. 1932. A Pleistocene bat from Florida. Journal of Mammalogy 13(3):256-259 [J. Alroy/J. Alroy]more details

Purpose of describing collection: taxonomic analysis

PaleoDB collection 74292: authorized by John Alroy, entered by John Alroy on 01.08.2007, edited by Richard Hulbert

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

• a long English-language list is given by Allen, who also mentions that "elephant and mastodon still persisted" in the No. 3 bed
Megalonx cf. wheatleyi3
Ray's referred specimens more likely represent M. jeffersonii
 Caudata - Urodela
Siren lacertina2 Linnaeus 1766 greater siren
 Testudines - Panemydidae
Terrapene carolina1 Linnaeus 1758 common box turtle
subspecies T. carolina putnami
 Cathartiformes - Cathartidae
Cathartes aura4 Linnaeus 1758 turkey vulture
 Galliformes - Phasianidae
Meleagris gallopavo4 Linnaeus 1758 wild turkey
 Galliformes - Odontophoridae
Colinus virginianus4 Linnaeus 1758 northern bobwhite
 Anseriformes - Anatidae
Branta hutchinsii4 Richardson 1832 cackling goose
Branta canadensis hutchinsi
 Falconiformes - Falconidae
"Polyborus cheriway" = Caracara cheriway4
"Polyborus cheriway" = Caracara cheriway4 Jacquin 1784 crested caracara
 Strigiformes - Strigidae
Strix varia4 Barton 1799 barred owl
 Gruiformes - Gruidae
Grus americana4, "Grus canadensis" = Antigone canadensis4
Grus americana4 Linnaeus 1758 Whooping crane
"Grus canadensis" = Antigone canadensis4 Linnaeus 1758 sandhill crane
 Procellariiformes - Procellariidae
Puffinus puffinus4 Brunnich 1764 Manx shearwater
 Pelecaniformes - Ardeidae
Nyctanassa violacea4, "Casmerodius albus" = Ardea alba4, Ardea herodias4
Nyctanassa violacea4 Linnaeus 1758 yellow-crowned night heron
"Casmerodius albus" = Ardea alba4 Linnaeus 1758 great egret
Ardea herodias4 Linnaeus 1758 great blue heron
 Ciconiiformes - Ciconiidae
Jabiru mycteria4 Lichtenstein 1819 jabiru
 Accipitriformes - Accipitridae
Buteo jamaicensis4 Gmelin 1788 red-tailed hawk
Buteo lineatus4 Gmelin 1788 red-shouldered hawk
Haliaeetus leucocephalus4 Linnaeus 1766 bald eagle
 Suliformes - Phalacrocoracidae
Phalacrocorax auritus4 Lesson 1831 double-crested cormorant
 Primates - Hominidae
Homo sapiens3 Linnaeus 1758 human
 Rodentia - Cricetidae
Oryzomys palustris3 Harlan 1837 marsh rice rat
Sigmodon hispidus3 Say and Ord 1825 hispid cotton rat
Neotoma floridana3 Ord 1818 eastern woodrat
Synaptomys australis3 Simpson 1928 vole
Neofiber alleni3 True 1884 round-tailed muskrat
Peromyscus gossypinus3 Le Conte 1853 cotton mouse
 Rodentia - Geomyidae
Geomys pinetis3 Rafinesque 1817 southeastern pocket gopher
 Rodentia - Castoridae
Castoroides cf. ohioensis3 Foster 1838 giant beaver
 Rodentia - Caviidae
Neochoerus pinckneyi3 Hay 1926 caviomorph
Hydrochoerus sp.3 Brisson 1762 capybara
 Lagomorpha - Leporidae
Sylvilagus palustris3 Bachman 1837 marsh rabbit
Sylvilagus floridanus3 Allen 1890 eastern cottontail
 Lipotyphla - Talpidae
Scalopus aquaticus3 Linnaeus 1758 eastern mole
 Perissodactyla - Tapiridae
"Tapirus veroensis" = Tapirus (Helicotapirus) veroensis3
"Tapirus veroensis" = Tapirus (Helicotapirus) veroensis3 Sellards 1918 tapir
 Perissodactyla - Equidae
Equus sp.3 Linnaeus 1758 horse
 Tribosphenida - Soricidae
Blarina brevicauda3 Say 1823 northern short-tailed shrew
 Chiroptera - Molossidae
"Molossides floridanus n. gen. n. sp." = Eumops glaucinus
"Molossides floridanus n. gen. n. sp." = Eumops glaucinus Wagner 1843 Wagner's bonneted bat
 Carnivora - Ursidae
Ursus sp.3 Linnaeus 1758 bear
Ursus americanus3 Pallas 1780 black bear
Tremarctos floridanus3 Gidley 1928 Florida cave bear
 Carnivora - Mephitidae
"Spilogale ambarvalis" = Spilogale putorius3, Mephitis mephitis3
"Spilogale ambarvalis" = Spilogale putorius3 Linnaeus 1758 Florida spotted skunk
Mephitis mephitis3 Schreber 1776 striped skunk
 Carnivora - Procyonidae
Procyon lotor3 Linnaeus 1758 raccoon
 Carnivora - Phocidae
"Monachus tropicalis" = Neomonachus tropicalis3
"Monachus tropicalis" = Neomonachus tropicalis3 Gray 1850 Hawaiian monk seal
 Carnivora - Mustelidae
"Lutra canadensis" = Lontra canadensis3
"Lutra canadensis" = Lontra canadensis3 Schreber 1776 North American river otter
 Carnivora - Canidae
"Vulpes palmaria" = Vulpes vulpes3, "Aenocyon cf. ayersi" = Canis dirus3, Canis cf. latrans3, Canis cf. lupus3, Urocyon cf. cinereoargenteus3
"Vulpes palmaria" = Vulpes vulpes3 Linnaeus 1758 red fox
"Aenocyon cf. ayersi" = Canis dirus3 Leidy 1858 dire wolf
Canis cf. latrans3 Say 1823 coyote
Canis cf. lupus3 Linnaeus 1758 gray wolf
Urocyon cf. cinereoargenteus3 Schreber 1775 gray fox
 Carnivora - Felidae
"Smilodon cf. floridanus" = Smilodon fatalis3, "Felis rufus" = Lynx rufus3, Felis (Herpailurus) sp.3, "Panthera augusta" = Panthera onca3, "Felis cf. inexpectata" = Miracinonyx inexpectatus3
"Smilodon cf. floridanus" = Smilodon fatalis3 Leidy 1868 saber-toothed cat
"Felis rufus" = Lynx rufus3 Schreber 1777 bobcat
Felis (Herpailurus) sp.3 Linnaeus 1758 cat
"Panthera augusta" = Panthera onca3 Linnaeus 1758 jaguar
"Felis cf. inexpectata" = Miracinonyx inexpectatus3 Cope 1895 American cheetah
 Cingulata - Dasypodidae
Dasypus bellus3 Simpson 1929 beautiful armadillo
 Xenarthra - Megalonychidae
Megalonyx jeffersonii3 Desmarest 1822 Jefferson's ground sloth
 Xenarthra - Mylodontidae
Paramylodon cf. harlani3 Owen 1840 Harlan's ground sloth
 Xenarthra - Pampatheriidae
"Chlamytherium septentrionalis" = Holmesina septentrionalis3
"Chlamytherium septentrionalis" = Holmesina septentrionalis3 Leidy 1889 edentate
 Xenarthra - Glyptodontidae
"Boreostracon floridanus" = Glyptotherium cylindricum3
"Boreostracon floridanus" = Glyptotherium cylindricum3 Brown 1912 Florida glyptodont
 Proboscidea - Mammutidae
Mammut americanum3 Kerr 1792 American mastodon
 Proboscidea - Elephantidae
"Mammuthus columbi" = Mammuthus columbi3, "cf. Mammuthus imperator" = Mammuthus columbi3
"Mammuthus columbi" = Mammuthus columbi3 Falconer 1857 Columbian mammoth
"cf. Mammuthus imperator" = Mammuthus columbi3 Falconer 1857 imperial mammoth
ID questionable
 Ungulata - Tayassuidae
Platygonus sp.3 Leconte 1848 peccary
Mylohyus sp.3 Cope 1869 peccary
 Ungulata - Camelidae
"Tanupolama mirifica" = Palaeolama mirifica3
"Tanupolama mirifica" = Palaeolama mirifica3 Simpson 1929 stout-legged llama
 Ungulata - Bovidae
Bison sp.3 Hamilton-Smith 1827 bison
 Ungulata - Cervidae
Odocoileus virginianus3 Zimmermann 1780 white-tailed deer
 Didelphimorphia - Didelphidae
Didelphis marsupialis3 Linnaeus 1758 common opossum