White Bluffs ( of the United States)

Also known as UCMP 2757; UCMP 3031

Where: Franklin County, Washington (46.3° N, 119.1° W: paleocoordinates 46.3° N, 118.1° W)

• coordinate based on political unit

When: upper Member (Ringold Formation), Blancan (4.9 - 1.8 Ma)

Environment/lithology: terrestrial

Primary reference: E. P. Gustafson. 1978. The Vertebrate Faunas of the Pliocene Ringold Formation, South-Central Washington. Bulletin of the Museum of Natural History, University of Oregon 23:1-62 [J. Alroy/J. Alroy/J. Marcot]more details

PaleoDB collection 20063: authorized by John Alroy, entered by John Alroy on 18.02.1993, edited by Jonathan Marcot

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

• originally described by Merriam and Buwalda 1917
composite of numerous localities from a 70 m interval
magnetically reversed
Mammalia
 Rodentia - Cricetidae
Neotoma cf. quadriplicata Hibbard 1941 pack rat
Ophiomys mcknighti1 Gustafson 1978 vole
Peromyscus nosher Gustafson 1978 deer mouse
 Rodentia - Sciuridae
Paenemarmota cf. sawrockensis2 Hibbard 1964 squirrel
"or Marmota"
? Spermophilus russelli Gustafson 1978 ground squirrel
Ammospermophilus hanfordi Gustafson 1978 antelope squirrel
 Rodentia - Geomyidae
Thomomys cf. gidleyi Wilson 1933 pocket gopher
 Rodentia - Castoridae
Castor californicus Kellogg 1911 beaver
Dipoides rexroadensis Hibbard and Riggs 1949 beaver
 Lagomorpha - Leporidae
Nekrolagus cf. progressus Hibbard 1939 rabbit
confirmed by White 1991a
Hypolagus ringoldensis n. sp. Gustafson 1978 rabbit
 Lipotyphla - Talpidae
Scapanus sp. Pomel 1848 mole
 Perissodactyla - Rhinocerotidae
Teleoceras hicksi3 Cook 1927 rhinoceros
UW C1399
 Perissodactyla - Equidae
"Equus cf. simplicidens" = Equus (Dolichohippus) simplicidens
"Equus cf. simplicidens" = Equus (Dolichohippus) simplicidens Cope 1892 horse
 Carnivora - Ursidae
Plionarctos harroldorum n. sp.5 Tedford and Martin 2001 bear
LACM 3879; also at Ringold Flat (SDSM V-8644), Savage Island (SDSM V-8645), UWBM A3036, UWBM A9292, and UWBM A8814; "Ursus cf. abstrusus"
 Carnivora - Mustelidae
Trigonictis macrodon4 Cope 1868 mustelid carnivore
 Carnivora - Canidae
Eucyon davisi1 Merriam 1911 canine
Borophagus hilli6 Johnston 1939 bone-crushing dog
 Carnivora - Felidae
Felinae indet.1 Trouessart 1885 cat
 Xenarthra - Megalonychidae
"Megalonyx rohrmanni" = Megalonyx leptostomus
"Megalonyx rohrmanni" = Megalonyx leptostomus Cope 1893 edentate
 Proboscidea - Mammutidae
Mammut americanum Kerr 1792 American mastodon
 Ungulata - Tayassuidae
Platygonus pearcei Gazin 1938 peccary
 Ungulata - Camelidae
Megatylopus cf. cochrani Hibbard and Riggs 1949 camel
Hemiauchenia sp. Gervais and Ameghino 1880 camel
 Ungulata - Cervidae
Bretzia pseudalces n. sp. Fry and Gustafson 1974 deer