Khok Sung Quarry (Pleistocene of Thailand)

Where: Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand (15.0° N, 102.1° E: paleocoordinates 14.8° N, 102.1° E)

• coordinate estimated from map

• small collection-level geographic resolution

When: Early/Lower Pleistocene (2.6 - 0.8 Ma)

• Stegodon fauna

• bed-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: alluvial fan; unlithified siltstone and unlithified sandstone

• Recent alluvial deposits of silts, sands, and gravels

Size class: macrofossils

Collected by Department of Mineral Resources

• DMR-KS, Khok Sung Collection, Department of Mineral Resources, Bangkok, Thailand

Primary reference: J. E. Martin, E. Buffetaut, W. Naksri, K. Lauprasert, and J. Claude. 2012. Gavialis from the Pleistocene of Thailand and its relevance for drainage connections from India to Java. PLoS One 7(9):e44541 [P. Mannion/P. Mannion]more details

Purpose of describing collection: taxonomic analysis

PaleoDB collection 143885: authorized by Philip Mannion, entered by Philip Mannion on 26.04.2013

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

Actinopteri
 Siluriformes - Siluridae
Siluridae indet. Cuvier 1816 catfish
Reptilia
 Testudines - Trionychidae
cf. Amyda sp. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire 1809 softshell turtle
A partial plastron consisting of the hypo- and hyoplastron (DMRKS0305-31-11, DMRKS0305- 31-12, DMRKS0305-31-13) and xiphiplastron (DMR KS05032645)
Chitra sp. Gray 1844 softshell turtle
Articulated nuchal, first costal and first neural plates of large size (DMR KS0506-22-2)
 Testudines - Pangeoemydidae
 Testudines - Panemydidae
Heosemys annandalii Forest turtles
Several complete shells (DMR-KS201102-05)
Heosemys cf. grandis Gray 1860 Giant Asian pond turtle
A few neural plates (DMR-KS201102-2) and some posterior peripheral plates (DMR-KS201102-3 and DMR-KS201102-4)
Malayemys sp. Lindholm 1931 Malayan snail-eating turtles
Fifth costal plate (DMRKS201102- 1)
 Crocodylia -
Gavialis cf. bengawanicus Dubois 1908 gharial
DMR-KS-201202-1, a complete skull and associated mandibles; DMR-KS-03-25-23, a skull missing the rostrum and much of the palate; DMR-KS-05-06-22-1, a pair of dentaries; DMR-KS-05-03-08-37, a jaw fragment with two teeth; DMR-KS-05-03-27-7, a right humerus; DMR-KS-05-03-26-7, DMR-KS-03-27-22, a right proximal portion of humerus; DMRKS- 05-03-27-6, a left distal portion of humerus; a left femur; DMR-KS-05-03-26-12, 05-03-26-40, 05-03-26-41; 05-03-27-23, 05-03-27-24, 05-03-27-25, six osteoderms; DMR-KS-12-03-05, three osteoderms
 Serpentes -
Serpentes indet. snake
Vertebra
Mammalia
 Carnivora - Hyaenidae
Hyaenidae indet. Gray 1821 hyaena
 Proboscidea - Elephantidae
Stegodon sp. Falconer 1857 elephant
 Ungulata - Bovidae
Bovidae indet. Gray 1821 antelope
 Ungulata - Cervidae
Cervidae indet. Gray 1821 deer
unclassified
  -
Plantae indet. Haeckel 1866
"plant remains"