Kalmakpay (Miocene of Kazakhstan)

Where: Kazakhstan (47.0° N, 84.0° E: paleocoordinates 47.3° N, 83.8° E)

• coordinate estimated from map

When: Turolian (8.7 - 5.3 Ma)

• Late Turolian, Upper Miocene, Santash Suite, MN13.

•'The Kalmakpay fauna occurs in the reddish brown sandy clays of the Karabulak suite in the Zaisan depression that is a correlative unit of the upper part of the Santash suite in southern Kazakhstan. The Santash suite, developed in the piedmont depressions of Northern TIen Shan Mountains, is represented by reddish brown clays and ill-sorted siltstones with interlayers of sandstones and marls.'

Environment/lithology: sandy

• reddish brown sandy clays

Primary reference: M.V. Sotnikova, A.E. Dodonov, and A.V. Pen'kov. 1997. Upper Cenozoic bio-magnetic stratigraphy of Central Asian mammalian localities. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 133:243-258 [A. Turner/H. O'Regan/H. O'Regan]more details

Purpose of describing collection: biostratigraphic analysis

PaleoDB collection 34436: authorized by Alan Turner, entered by Hannah O'Regan on 01.09.2003, edited by Evangelos Vlachos

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

 Squamata - Varanidae
Varanus sp. Merrem 1820 monitor lizard
 Squamata - Anguidae
Ophisaurus sp. Daudin 1803 glass lizard
“small sized” (=? Anguis sp. “large sized”)
 Squamata - Boidae
Eryx sp. Daudin 1803 true sand boa
 Perissodactyla - Rhinocerotidae
Chilotherium sp. Ringström 1924 rhinoceros
 Perissodactyla - Equidae
Hipparion hippidiodus hipparionine horse
Hipparion elegans hipparionine horse
 Carnivora - Ursidae
Indarctos sp. Pilgrim 1913 bear
 Carnivora -
Adcrocuta eximia Roth and Wagner 1854 carnivoran
 Carnivora - Mustelidae
Vormela sp. Blasius 1884 marbled polecat
Plesiogulo crassa mustelid carnivore
 Carnivora - Felidae
Machairodus kurteni Sotnikova 1991 cat
 Carnivora - Hyaenidae
Hyaenictitherium hyaenoides hyaena
Hyaenictitherium hyaenoides orlovi
 Ungulata - Giraffidae
 Ungulata - Bovidae
Tragocerus sp. Gaudry 1861 antelope
 Ungulata - Cervidae