Silveirinha clay pit (Eocene of Portugal)

Also known as Silveirinha Pequena

Where: Região Centro, Portugal (40.0° N, 8.8° W: paleocoordinates 35.6° N, 10.0° W)

• coordinate based on nearby landmark

• outcrop-level geographic resolution

When: MP 7 mammal zone, Rio Mondego Member (Silveirinha Formation), Early/Lower Eocene (55.8 - 48.6 Ma)

• The exact stratigraphic position of the Silveirinha locality is not fully constrained. It is generally regarded as either latest Paleocene and/or earliest Eocene. Most authors prefer assignment to the Early Eocene (MN7), based on mammal biostratigraphy (see e.g. Pais et al., 2012, Paleogene and Neogene of Western Iberia. Springer). (TL)

• group of beds-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: crevasse splay; lenticular, calcareous conglomerate and muddy, sandy siliciclastic

• The conglomerates are interpreted as crevasse-splay deposit (Antunes & Russel, 1981, C. R. Acad. Sc. Paris, Ser. II, 293, 1099-1102).
• The Silveirinha Formation consists of fossiliferous lenticular calcitic conglomerates as well as laminated and cross bedded sands and brownish-red silts. (Pais et al., 2012)

Size classes: macrofossils, mesofossils

Primary reference: C. Estravís. 2000. Nuevos mamíferos del Eoceno Inferior de Silveirinha (Baixo Mondego, Portugal). Coloquios de Paleontología 51:281-311 [L. van den Hoek Ostende/L. van den Hoek Ostende/P. Mannion]more details

Purpose of describing collection: taxonomic analysis

PaleoDB collection 79200: authorized by Lars van den Hoek Ostende, entered by Lars van den Hoek Ostende on 27.02.2008, edited by John Alroy, Torsten Liebrecht, Patricia Holroyd, Philip Mannion and Richard Butler

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

 Salientia - Pelobatidae
Pelobatidae indet.8 Lataste 1879 spadefoot toad
2 fragments of ilia (identified as Eopelobates sp. by Antunes & Russel, 1981)
 Caudata - Urodela
Salamandridae indet.8 Gray 1825 newt
37 vertebrae, 2 fragments of humeri (taxon already mentioned by Antunes & Russel, 1981)
 Testudines - Podocnemidae
Neochelys sp.7 Bergounioux 1954 sideneck turtle
multiple elements. Listed as "N. cf. arenarum" in Antunes & Russell, 1981
 Charadriiformes - Recurvirostridae
Fluviatilavis antunesi n. gen. n. sp.6
Fluviatilavis antunesi n. gen. n. sp.6 Harrison 1983 shorebird
Femur (holotype). Referred specimens: distal humerus and right radius
 Ornithurae -
Neornithes indet.1 Gadow 1893 bird
 Crocodylia -
Diplocynodon sp.1 Pomel 1847 crocodilian
Elements from across the skeleton
 Squamata - Varanidae
? Varanidae indet.8 Hardwicke and Gray 1824 monitor lizard
vertebra (presence of a pseudozygosphene is reminiscent of the genus Saniwa)
 Squamata - Anguidae
Glyptosaurinae indet.8 Marsh 1872 squamates
some incomplete dentaries and hundreds of trunk osteoderms
Melanosaurini indet.8 Sullivan 1979 squamates
incomplete parietal
Glyptosaurini indet.8 Sullivan 1979 squamates
6 fragments of skull bones and tens of isolated osteoderms (taxon identified as "forme du groupe Placosaurus" by Antunes & Russel, 1981)
cf. Melanosaurus sp.8 Gilmore 1928 squamates
1 incomplete jugal and 1 fragment of what is probably a parietal
? Anguinae indet.8 Gray 1825 squamates
1 posterior part of dentary, 1 vertebra (shape of teeth reminiscent of group of Anguinae that includes Dopasia and Anguis)
 Squamata - Iguanidae
Iguanidae indet.8 Oppel 1811 squamates
3 fragments of dentigerous bone
Geiseltaliellus sp.8 Kuhn 1944 squamates
posterior part of maxilla
 Squamata - Agamidae
cf. Tinosaurus sp.8 Marsh 1872 squamates
fragment of bone bearing two teeth
 Squamata -
Serpentes indet.8 Linnaeus 1758 snake
1 vertebra
 Squamata - Boidae
Boidae indet.8 Gray 1825 boa
16 vertebrae (taxon mentioned as Boinae indet. by Antunes & Russel, 1981)
 Squamata - Tropidophiidae
Dunnophis matronensis8 Rage 1973 dwarf boa
34 vertebrae (taxon mentioned as Dunnophis cf. matronensis by Antunes & Russel, 1981)
 Squamata - Gekkonidae
Gekkonidae indet.8 Gray 1825 gecko
2 anterior parts of dentaries, 1 trunk vertebra
 Squamata -
Scincomorpha "indet. 1"8 lizard
4 fragments of dentigerous bone
Scincomorpha "indet. 2"8 lizard
1 fragment of dentigerous bone, 1 vertebra
 Squamata - Amphisbaenidae
Amphisbaenidae indet.8 worm lizard
2 posterior parts of dentaries, about 10 vertebrae (taxon mentioned as Amphisbaenia indet. by Antunes & Russel, 1981)
 Primates -
Donrussellia lusitanica n. sp. Estravís 2000 tarsier
 Primates - Paromomyidae
Arcius zbyszewskii n. sp. Estravís 2000 primate
 Cimolesta - Cimolestidae
Ilerdoryctes cf. sigei Marandat 1989 eutherian
 Rodentia - Ischyromyidae
Microparamys cf. nanus Teilhard de Jardin 1927 rodent
Microparamys paisi Estravís 1994 rodent
"Meldimys cardosoi n. sp." = Euromys cardosoi Estravís 2000 rodent
 Perissodactyla -
"Microhyus reisi" = Teilhardimys reisi
"Microhyus reisi" = Teilhardimys reisi Antunes et al. 1987 odd-toed ungulate
 Perissodactyla - Lophiodontidae
cf. Lophiaspis maurettei Depéret 1910 odd-toed ungulate
 Perissodactyla -
Paschatherium marianae Estravís and Russell 1992 odd-toed ungulate
 Perissodactyla - Equidae
"Hyracotherium cf. vulpiceps" = Pliolophus vulpiceps
"Hyracotherium cf. vulpiceps" = Pliolophus vulpiceps Owen 1858 horse
 Tribosphenida - Nyctitheriidae
Nyctitheriidae indet. Simpson 1928 placental
cf. Leptacodon sp. Matthew and Granger 1921 placental
Leptacodon nascimentoi n. sp.3 Estravís 1996 placental
SV3-302 - type
 Tribosphenida -
? Talpavus sp. Marsh 1872 placental
 Chiroptera - Archaeonycteridae
Archaeonycteris praecursor n. sp.9 Tabuce et al. 2009 bat
A right lower m1 or m2, UNLSNC-447
 Ferae -
Creodonta indet. Cope 1875 creodont
 Ferae - Viverravidae
cf. Viverravus sp. Marsh 1872 placental
 Carnivora - Miacidae
Miacidae indet. Cope 1880 carnivoran
cf. Miacis sp. Cope 1872 carnivoran
 Ferae -
"Miacis cf. latouri" = Dormaalocyon latouri
"Miacis cf. latouri" = Dormaalocyon latouri Quinet 1966 placental
 Taeniodonta - Conoryctidae
Eurodon silveirinhensis n. gen. n. sp.5
Eurodon silveirinhensis n. gen. n. sp.5 Estravís and Russell 1992 taeniodont
SV2-15, isolated, right M3. Referred: SV3-234, right M3 and, more questionably, SV3-208, left M1 or M2
 Ungulata - Diacodexeidae
Diacodexis antunesi n. sp.4 Estravís and Russell 1989 even-toed ungulate
CEPUNL SV3-338 - type; originally listed as Diacodexis cf. gazini (Antunes and Russell 1981)
 Insectivora - Apatemyidae
Russellmys denisae n. gen. n. sp.2 Estravís 1990 insectivoran
SV3-249, maxilla
Apatemys sp. Marsh 1872 insectivoran
+ cf. Apatemys sp.
Heterohyus sp. Gervais 1848 insectivoran
sp. I + II
 Acreodi -
Mondegodon eutrigonus n. gen. n. sp.10
Mondegodon eutrigonus n. gen. n. sp.10 Tabuce et al. 2011 eutherian
 Hyaenodonta -
Didelphodus sp. Cope 1882 eutherian
 Theriiformes - Herpetotheriidae
Peratherium cf. constans Teilhard de Jardin 1927 marsupial