Makapansgat - Mbr. 3 (Pliocene of South Africa)

Also known as ETE Locality 1180, grey marl, Lower Phase I grey breccia, Makapansgat - Mbr. 3,

Where: South Africa (24.2° S, 29.0° E: paleocoordinates 24.4° S, 28.6° E)

When: 14 Member (Makapansgat Formation), Pliocene (5.3 - 2.6 Ma)

• ETE dating method: time_unit, ETE age comment: "Fauna /paleomag data sugg age =~3.0 Ma,range=3.32 to 2.6 Ma"

Environment/lithology: cave

• ETE sed env 1: trap, ETE sed env 2: cave ETE event: ., ETE env comment: altern hi&lo ener regimes
• ETE rock type adj: 0, ETE lithology comments: sandy-silty loam

Collection methods: ETE Size: both; ETE reference list: 955, 954, ; ETE museum list:

Primary reference: E. K. E. Reed, J.W. Kitching, F.E. Grine, W.L. Jungers, and L. Sokoloff. 1993. Proximal femur of Australopithecus africanus from Member 4, Makapansgat, South Africa. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 92(1):1-15 [A. Behrensmeyer/A. Behrensmeyer/M. Kosnik]more details

PaleoDB collection 22356: authorized by Anna Behrensmeyer, entered by Anna Behrensmeyer on 23.08.1999, edited by John Damuth

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

 Coleoptera - Dermestidae
Dermestidae indet. Latreille 1804 skin beetle
ETE occurrence; species: Dermestidae
 Coleoptera - Trogidae
cf. Trogidae indet. MacLeay 1819 hide beetle
ETE occurrence; species: cf. Trogidae
 Scolopendromorpha - Scolopendridae
Reptilia indet. Laurenti 1768 reptile
ETE number of identifiable specimens; species: Chelonia
 Testudines - Pantestudinidae
Kinixys sp. Bell 1827 hingeback tortoise
 Testudines - Pelomedusidae
Pelusios sp. Wagler 1830 sideneck turtle
 Rodentia - Hystricidae
Hystrix africaeaustralis Peters 1852 Cape porcupine
 Carnivora - Felidae
 Carnivora - Hyaenidae
Hyaena makapani Toerien 1952 hyaena
Pachycrocuta brevirostris Gervais 1850 brown hyaena
 Tubulidentata - Orycteropodidae
Orycteropus cf. afer Pallas 1766 aardvark
 Ungulata - Bovidae
Parmularius braini Vrba 1977 antelope
Hippotragini indet. Sundevall 1845 antelope
ETE number of identifiable specimens; species: Hippotragini
Hippotragus cookei Vrba 1987 antelope
Wellsiana torticornuta Vrba 1987 antelope