Lower Bakhtiari Formation, near Injana (Miocene of Iraq)

Also known as Agha Jari Formation

Where: Iraq (34.5° N, 44.6° E: paleocoordinates 32.8° N, 43.7° E)

• coordinate based on nearby landmark

When: Agha Jari Formation, Vallesian (11.6 - 8.7 Ma)

• Late Vallesian (10-9 Ma). The Lower Bakhtiari Formation and Upper Fars Formation have been amalgamated to form the Agha Jari Formation.

• formation-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: conglomerate

• 'On y observe de nombreuses stratifications entrecroisees, ainsi que de tres importantes variations laterales et granulometrie. La direction de la couche fossilifere est de 135 (degrees) avec un pendage moyen de l'ordre de 15 (degrees) vers le NE.'
• 'Les fossiles proviennenet d'un conglomerat polygenique gresaux. Ces depots sont constitues par une matrice de sables gris clair a nombreaux mineraux lourds et d'elements detritiques peu evolues (quartz, cherts, radiolarites) dont la taille depasse rarement 2cm.' P271-272.

Size class: macrofossils

Primary reference: H. Thomas, S. Sen, and G. Ligabue. 1980. La Miocène de la Formation Agha Jari du Jebel Hamrin (Irak). Proceedings of the Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen, Series B. Paleontology/Geology 83(3):269-287 [A. Turner/H. O'Regan/H. O'Regan]more details

Purpose of describing collection: taxonomic analysis

PaleoDB collection 41735: authorized by Alan Turner, entered by Hannah O'Regan on 20.07.2004

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

Reptilia
 Testudines - Trionychidae
Trionychidae indet. Gray 1825 softshell turtle
Trionyx s.l. 2 carapace fragments (IJN 209, 211).
 Testudines - Pantestudinidae
Geochelone sp. Fitzinger 1835 turtle
1 dermal ossicle (IJN 220).
 Testudines - Pelomedusidae
? Pelomedusidae indet. Cope 1868 sideneck turtle
2 carapace fragments, (IJN 222-223).
Aves
 Struthioniformes - Struthionidae
Struthio sp. Linnaeus 1758 ostrich
egg shell fragments (IJN 195, 224).
Reptilia
 Crocodylia -
Gavialis sp. Oppel 1811 gharial
1 mandible fragment (IJN 203), 1 premaxilla fragment (IJN 205), 2 teeth (IJN 218-219).
 Squamata - Boidae
"? Erycinae indet." = Erycidae
"? Erycinae indet." = Erycidae Bonaparte 1825 sand boa
1 vertebral fragment. (IJN 194).
Mammalia
 Perissodactyla - Rhinocerotidae
Brachypotherium cf. perimense rhinoceros
1 right tibia (IJN 231)
 Perissodactyla - Equidae
"Hipparion cf. primigenium" = Hippotherium primigenium, Hipparion mediterraneum
"Hipparion cf. primigenium" = Hippotherium primigenium von Meyer 1829 hipparionine horse
1 mandible fragment (IJN 147), 1 upper molar (IJN 163), 2 astragalus fragments (IJN 31, 136), 2 phalanges (IJN 146, 182).
Hipparion mediterraneum Roth and Wagner 1855 hipparionine horse
4 isolated teeth (IJN 155, 160, 161, 169), 2 Calcanea (IJN 138-139), 2 astragali (IJN 135, 137), metapodial fragments (IJN 129-134), 6 phalanges (IJN 140-145).
 Carnivora - Mustelidae
? Mustelidae indet. Fischer 1817 mustelid carnivore
1 left astragalus (IJN 198)
 Carnivora - Felidae
? Machairodus sp. Kaup 1833 cat
1 astragalus (IJN 196)
 Proboscidea - Gomphotheriidae
Choerolophodon cf. pentelici Gaudry and Lartet 1856 gomphothere
1 complete cranium (no number), many isolated molars and postcranial elements (IJN 232-237, 243-244)
 Proboscidea - Deinotheriidae
Deinotheriidae indet. Bonaparte 1845 deinothere
1 tooth fragment (IJN 201). Either Deinotherium sp. or Prodeinotherium sp.
 Ungulata - Giraffidae
Giraffidae indet. Gray 1821 giraffe
2 mandible fragments (IJN 43, 57), 1 upper molar (IJN 49), 1 humerus fragment (IJN 55), 3 radii fragments (IJN 32, 34, 56), 2 tibiae (IJN 1, 40), 2 metapodial fragments (IJN 51-52), 4 astragali (IJN 11, 13, 16, 23), 4 navicular cuboids (IJN 4, 6, 8, 27), 5 carpals (IJN 5, 9, 10, 26, 192), 2 phalanges (IJN 19, 28).
cf. Bohlinia attica Lydekker 1886 giraffe
1 right metatarsal (IJN 41).
Palaeotragus coelophrys giraffe
1 upper M1 (IJN 44), 1 lower P3 (IJN 46), 2 lower M3 (IJN 45, 225).
Samotherium cf. boissieri Forsyth Major 1888 giraffe
1 upper left M2, 2 astragalus fragments (IJN 14, 15).
 Ungulata - Bovidae
Miotragocerus sp. Stromer 1928 antelope
3 horncore fragments (IJN 79, 80, 83), 1 basioccipital (IJN 59), 1 right mandible with M2 and M3 (IJN 117) and 1 lower M3 (IJN 125).
Ovibovini indet. antelope
2 cranial fragments (IJN 96, 97), 1 lower M2 (IJN 124).
Prostrepsiceros aff. houtumschindleri antelope
1 cranium (IJN 250), 1 mandible with P4-M2 (IJN 127).
Gazella cf. deperdita gazelle
1 horncore (IJN 84) and many postcranial elements of a gazelle of small size.
? Gazella capricornis gazelle
1 horncore fragment (IJN 82).