Ruseifa phosphate mine (Cretaceous of Jordan)

Where: Jordan (32.0° N, 36.0° E: paleocoordinates 16.2° N, 29.9° E)

• coordinate based on political unit

• local area-level geographic resolution

When: Phosphorite Unit Formation (Balqa Group), Maastrichtian (72.1 - 66.0 Ma)

• lithostratigraphically defined unit, containing 4 main phosphate seams at Ruseifa. Entire unit is about 24 m thick, with lower seam (likely source bed of pterosaur) about 2 m thick. All phosphate beds yeild vertebrates.

• group of beds-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: shallow subtidal; peloidal, shelly/skeletal phosphorite and limestone

• "In this mine (now closed), the Late Cretaceous phosphatic beds are well exposed

•and are approximately 20-25 m thick. Four phosphatic horizons (Fig. 1, I to IV) separated by marls, limestones and cherts are recognisable (Bender 1968; Bandel & Mikbel 1985; Jallad et al. 1989), with all these horizons yielding vertebrate remains." (Bardet and Pereda Suberbiola, 2002)

•"The Ruseifa Phosphates were deposited in a shallow sea, when the underlying Wadi Sir

•Formation was eroded along an island chain that accompanied the Ruseifa fault and associated folds (Bandel & Mikbel 1985). A near-shore environment is suggested by the rare occurrence of dinosaur and pterosaur remains into the marine series." (Bardet and Pereda Suberbiola, 2002)

• "The phosphate rock...are pelletal phosphates rich in fragmentary bones and teeth. Shelly fossils only occur where relatively early diagenetic events, usually silicification, have cemented the rock. Beds above and below the phosphate horizons contain abundant bivalves and gastropods and indicate water depths of only a few metres."

Size class: macrofossils

Preservation: trace, replaced with silica

Collected in the 1950s

Collection methods: quarrying,

Primary reference: C. Arambourg. 1959. Titanopteryx philadelphiae nov. gen., nov. sp. Ptérosaurien géant [Titanopteryx philadelphiae nov. gen., nov. sp. Giant pterosaurian]. Contributions à la Stratigraphie et à la Paléontologie du Crétacé et du Nummulitique de la Marge NW de la Péninsule Arabique. Notes et Mémoires du Moyen Orient 7:229-234 [R. Butler/R. Butler/M. Carrano]more details

Purpose of describing collection: taxonomic analysis

PaleoDB collection 13366: authorized by Matthew Carrano, entered by Matthew Carrano on 12.03.2002, edited by Mark Uhen, Richard Butler, Philip Mannion and Kaitlin Maguire

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

unclassified
  -
Chondrichthyes
 Elasmobranchii -
Elasmobranchii indet.3 Bonaparte 1838 elasmobranch
 Sclerorhynchiformes - Sclerorhynchidae
Sclerorhynchidae indet.2 Capetta 1974 elasmobranch
 Myliobatiformes - Dasyatidae
Dasyatidae indet.2 Jordan 1888 whiptail stingray
 Myliobatiformes - Rhombodontidae
Rhombodus binkhorsti2 Dames 1881 stingray
 Lamniformes - Anacoracidae
 Lamniformes - Cretoxyrhinidae
Cretolamna sp.2 Glikman 1958 mackerel shark
Cretolamna biauriculata1 Wanner 1902 mackerel shark
 Euselachii - Mitsukurinidae
Scapanorhynchus sp.1 Woodward 1889 goblin shark
 Euselachii -
Orectolobiformes indet.2 Applegate 1972 carpet shark
 Orectolobiformes - Ginglymostomatidae
Plicatoscyllium sp.1 Case and Cappetta 1997 nurse shark
Actinopteri
 Teleostei -
 Elopiformes - Phyllodontidae
Pseudoegertonia sp.1 Dartevelle and Casier 1949
 Salmoniformes - Enchodontidae
 Alepisauriformes - Dercetidae
Stratodus apicalis1 Cope 1872
 Pycnodontiformes - Pycnodontidae
Pycnodontidae indet.1 Agassiz 1835
Reptilia
 Testudines -
Chelonioidea indet.1, "Chelonia indet." = Testudines3
Chelonioidea indet.1 sea turtle
Large costal plates and a cervical vertebra (JPMC uncatalogued)
"Chelonia indet." = Testudines3 Batsch 1788 turtle
 Neornithischia -
Ornithopoda indet.4 bird foot dinosaur
 Pterosauria - Azhdarchidae
"Titanopteryx philadelphiae n. gen. n. sp." = Arambourgiania philadelphiae, "cf. Arambourgiania philadelphiae" = Arambourgiania philadelphiae3
"Titanopteryx philadelphiae n. gen. n. sp." = Arambourgiania philadelphiae Arambourg 1959 pterosaur
Univ. Jordan, Dept. Geol. VF-1 (holotype), cervical vertebra.
"cf. Arambourgiania philadelphiae" = Arambourgiania philadelphiae3 Arambourg 1959 pterosaur
Two phalangeal fragments, cervical vertebra, limb fragment
 Loricata -
Crocodyliformes indet.1 Hay 1930 crocodilian
Tooth (MNHN 1960-20); originally referred to Crocodilus sp. (Arambourg et al. 1959)
Crocodylia indet.3 crocodilian
 Squamata - Mosasauridae
Mosasauridae indet.3 Gervais 1852 mosasaur
Globidens sp.1 Gilmore 1912 mosasaur
Teeth (MNHN 1960-20, UD uncatalogued); previously described as Globidens fraasi (Avnimelech 1949) and Globidens aegyptiacus (Arambourg et al. 1959)
Prognathodon giganteus1 Dollo 1889 mosasaur
Teeth (NHM R 5887; MNHN 1960-20; UD uncatalogued); previously described as Mosasaurus cf. anceps (Arambourg et al. 1959)
Halisaurus sp.1 Marsh 1869 mosasaur
Tooth (MNHN 1960-20)
Platecarpus ptychodon1 mosasaur
Teeth (MNHN 1960-20); also reported by Arambourg et al. (1959)
 Plesiosauria -
 Sauropterygia - Elasmosauridae
Elasmosauridae indet.1 Cope 1869 elasmosaur
Teeth (MNHN 1960-20), vertebrae (UD and JPMC uncatalogued) and two propodial bones (UD uncatalogued); the teeth were originally referred to Plesiosaurus mauritanicus (Arambourg et al. 1959)
Stephanodus
  - Trigonodontidae