Frauenweiler (Oligocene of Germany)

Also known as Grube Unterfeld; Bott-Eder clay pit; Rauenberg

Where: Baden-Württemberg, Germany (49.2° N, 8.8° E: paleocoordinates 48.6° N, 5.2° E)

• coordinate based on nearby landmark

• outcrop-level geographic resolution

When: MP 22 mammal zone, Rupelian (33.9 - 28.1 Ma)

• "early Oligocene, Rupelian... MP 22" (Mayr 2007)

•fish and bird fossils are from the "Fish Shales," which are "about 10 m thick" and are overlain by an "about 40 m" thick clay interval called the Meletta-Layers (Micklich and Hildebrandt 2005)

Environment/lithology: estuary or bay; gray claystone

• "the sediments of Frauenweiler are marine and were deposited during a transgression caused by rifting activities (Mayr 2000)" and the exact environment probably was "a quiet, shallow and nutritious bay with some kind of shelter from the open sea" and could even have been a "brackwish water influence," but "the presence of larger estuaries or river mouths does not seem very likely" (Micklich and Hildebrandt 2005)
• the "fish shales... mostly consist of laminated, dark-grey argillaceous sediments" with a TOC of 4.0-5.5%, and the overall section consists of "dark-grey or black, compact, marly clay stones, which are very well laminated in certain sections" (Micklich and Hildebrandt 2005)

Size class: macrofossils

• "the [bird] fossils are completely disarticulated, with the bones being jumbled but nevertheless clo- sely associated" but "fish skeletons... are often fully articulated" (Mayr and Micklich 2010)

Preservation: adpression

Collected by Charles Knopf in 2009; reposited in the SMF, SMNS

Collection methods: quarrying

• SMF, SMNS, and HLMD collections

•most specimens were collected prior to 2009

Primary reference: G. Mayr. 2000. A new mousebird (Coliiformes: Coliidae) from the Oligocene of Germany. Journal of Ornithology 141(1):85-92 [J. Alroy/J. Alroy]more details

Purpose of describing collection: taxonomic analysis

PaleoDB collection 68021: authorized by John Alroy, entered by John Alroy on 24.12.2006, edited by Mark Uhen and Patricia Holroyd

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

• "more than 70 elasmobranch and teleostean fish species" are also present (Micklich and Hildebrandt 2005)
Zygrahablithus bijugatus9, Lanternitus minutus9, Oligopleuronectes germanicus9, Oligopleuronectes weissi9, Anechelum glarisianum9, Musculopedunculus micklichi9, Gemphylidae indet.9, Tholichthys sp.9, Microcanthus sp.9, Leiognathoides cf. altapinna9, Reproca sabbai9, Trilidae indet.9, Oligosphenopsis gracillis9, Frauenweilerstomus synarchus9, Microphis sp.9, Weissobatis micklichi9, Oligoremora rhenana2, Cribocentrum coenurum2, Cylicargolithus floridanus2, Ilselithina fusa2, Transversopontis obliquipons2, Transversopontis pygmaea2, Chriopteridium galea2, Cordospheridium cantharellum2, Criboperidinium tenuitabulatum2, Distatodinium sp.2, Distatodinium paradoxum2, Distatodinium biffii2, Distatodinium craterum2, Distatodinium ellipticum2, Enneadocysta arcuata2, Enneadocysta sp.2, Enneadocysta pectiniformis2, Histiocycta sp.2, Homotryblium plectilium2, Homotryblium tenuispinosum2, Homotryblium oceanicum2, Impletoshaeridium sp.2, Paleocystodinium sp.2, Phthanoperidinium amoenum2, Phthanoperidinium comatum2, Phthanoperidinium sp.2, Wetzelliella gochtii2, Wetzelliella symmetrica2, Wetzelliella sp.2, Bulimna sp.2, Globigeria bulloides2, Turillina alsatica2, Phycophyta indet.2, Tetraclinis salicornioides2, Actinodaphne pseudogermari2, ? Calamoideae indet.2, ? Buxus egeriana2, Eotrigonobalanus furcinervis2, Engelhardia orsbergensis2, Engelhardia macroptera2, Distylium sp.2, Trachelospermum sp.2, Trachelospermum steiningeri2, Pungiphyllum cruciatum2, Cirrepedia indet.2, Protochelonibia sp.2, Pentatomorpha indet.2, cf. Bupestridae indet.2, Foraminifera indet.2
Enneadocysta sp.2
arcuata complex
Foraminifera indet.2 d'Orbigny 1826
 Lituolacea - Lituolidae
 Rotaliina - Stilostomellidae
 Buliminacea - Uvigerinidae
Uvigerina sp.2 d'Orbigny 1826
 Discorbacea - Rosalinidae
Rosalina sp.2 d'Orbigny 1826
 Rotaliacea - Rotaliidae
 Nonionacea - Nonionidae
 Rotaliina - Bolivinidae
 Astrorhizacea - Bathysiphonidae
 Nodosariacea - Polymorphinidae
 Nodosariacea - Nodosariidae
Frondicularia sp.2 Defrance 1824
Lagena sp.2 Walker and Boys 1784
Dentalina sp.2 d'Orbigny 1826
Lenticulina sp.2 Lamarck 1804
 Nodosariacea - Ellipsolagenidae
Fissurina sp.2 Reuss 1850
Insecta indet.11 Linnaeus 1758 insect
 Hemiptera -
 Hemiptera - Pentatomidae
Pentatomidae indet.2 Leach 1815 stink bug
 Dicondylia -
cf. Orthoptera indet.2 Olivier 1789 grasshopper
cf. Hymenoptera indet.2 Linnaeus 1758 winged insect
 Coleoptera -
Elateroidea indet.2 Leach 1815 beetle
cf. Elateridae or Bupestridae
 Coleoptera - Staphylinidae
cf. Staphylinidae indet.2 Latreille 1802 rove beetle
 Coleoptera - Cerambycidae
Cerambycidae indet.2 Latreille 1802 longhorned beetle
 Coleoptera - Curculionidae
Curculionidae indet.2 Latreille 1802 snout beetle
 Coleoptera - Carabidae
Carabidae indet.2 Latreille 1802 ground beetle
 Dicondylia -
cf. Diptera indet.2 Linnaeus 1758 fly
mostly Bibionidae
 Lepidoptera - Geometridae
cf. Geometridae indet.2 Leach 1815 geometer moth
 Odonata - Calopterygidae
Calopterygidae indet.2 Selys 1815 broad-winged damselfly
 Decapoda - Mathildellidae
Coeloma taunicum2 Von Meyer 1862 crab
 Decapoda - Nephropidae
Hoploparia klebsi2 Noetling 1885 clawed lobster
 Decapoda - Callianassidae
Callianassidae indet.2 Dana 1852 decapod
 Pedunculata -
Pedunculata indet.2 Lamarck 1818 barnacle
 Araneae -
cf. Araneae indet.2 Clerck 1757 spider
 Scorpiones -
cf. Scorpiones indet.2 Latreille 1817 scorpion
 Arcida - Glycymerididae
Glycymeris sp.2 Da Costa 1778 clam
 Ostreida - Malleidae
Isognomon sp.2 Lightfoot 1786 oyster
 Cardiida - Chamidae
 Cardiida - Tellinidae
? Arcopagia sp.2 Leach 1827 tellin clam
 Cardiida - Cardiidae
 Hiatellida - Hiatellidae
? Panopea sp.2 Menard 1807 clam
 Pholadomyida - Pholadomyidae
 Lucinida - Thyasiridae
 Nuculida - Nuculidae
 Protobranchia - Sareptidae
 Ptenoglossa - Epitoniidae
? Opalia sp.2 Adams and Adams 1853 wentletrap
 Prosobranchia -
Neogastropoda indet.2 Thiele 1929 snail
 Neogastropoda - Fasciolariidae
Streptochetus sp.2 Cossmann 1901 snail
 Neogastropoda - Muricidae
Muricopsis sp.2 Bucquoy et al. 1882 murex snail
 Stromboidea - Aporrhaidae
 Naticoidea - Naticidae
 Tonnoidea - Cassidae
Galeodea depressa2 Buch 1831 snail
 Sorbeoconcha - Batillariidae
Granulolabium ? plicatum2 Bruguiére 1792 snail
 Plagiostomi - Squalidae
Squalus alsaticus9 dogfish shark
 Euselachii - Galeidae
Triakis kelleri9 elasmobranch
 Myliobatiformes - Myliobatidae
 Lamniformes - Cetorhinidae
Keasius parvus2 Leriche 1908 basking shark
 Lamniformes -
Isurolamna gracilis9 mackerel shark
 Lamniformes - Odontaspididae
"Carcharias acutissima" = Odontaspis acutissima2, Carcharias gustrowensis9, "Carcharias cuspidatus" = Araloselachus cuspidatus9
"Carcharias acutissima" = Odontaspis acutissima2 Agassiz 1843 sand tiger shark
Carcharias gustrowensis9 Winkler 1875 sand shark
"Carcharias cuspidatus" = Araloselachus cuspidatus9 Agassiz 1843 sand tiger shark
 Carchariniformes - Carcharhinidae
Physogaleus latus9 requiem shark
 Hexanchiformes - Hexanchidae
Notorhynchus primigenius9 Agassiz 1843 sevengill shark
 Chimaeriformes - Chimaeridae
 Anguilliformes - Moringuidae
Deutschenchelys micklichi n. gen. n. sp.12
Deutschenchelys micklichi n. gen. n. sp.12 Prokofiev 2012 eel
 Elopiformes - Elopidae
Elopidae indet.9 Bonaparte 1846
 Scorpaeniformes - Triglidae
Triglidae indet.2 sea robin
 Acanthomorphata - Gempylidae
Gempylidae indet.8 Gill 1862
cf. Thyrsitoides sp.2 Fowler 1929
 Lampridiformes - Veliferidae
Veliferidae indet.9 Bleeker 1859
 Beloniformes - Hemiramphidae
Hemiramphus sp.2 Cuvier 1817
 Carangiformes - Echeneidae
 Carangiformes - Carangidae
 Acanthomorphata - Sphyraenidae
cf. Sphyraena sp.9 Walbaum 1792 barracuda
 Pleuronectiformes - Scophthalmidae
Scophthalmus sp.2 Rafinesque 1810 flatfish
 Syngnathiformes - Syngnathidae
Doryrhamphus sp.9 Kaup 1853
Syngnathus sp.9 Linnaeus 1758 pipefish
Syngnathus cf. incompletus2 Cosmovici 1887 pipefish
 Syngnathiformes - Aulostomidae
 Scombriformes - Scombridae
Scombridae indet.9 Rafinesque 1815
Scomberomorini indet.9 Starks 1910
sp. a & b
Neocybium sp.9 Leriche 1906
Auxides cf. cernegurae2 Ciobanu 1977
Scomber sp.9 Linnaeus 1758
or Auxides sp.
 Scombriformes - Palaeorhynchidae
"Palaeorhynchus cf. glarisianus" = Palaeorhynchus glarisianum2, Palaeorhynchus cf. zitteli2
"Palaeorhynchus cf. glarisianus" = Palaeorhynchus glarisianum2 de Blainville 1818
Palaeorhynchus cf. zitteli2 Kramberger 1879
 Scombriformes -
 Scombriformes - Nomeidae
 Scombriformes - Trichiuridae
aff. Trichiurus sp.2 Linnaeus 1758
Anenchelum cf. angustum2 Danil'chenko 1980
Lepidopus sp.2 Gouan 1770
 Scombriformes - Stromateidae
 Ophidiiformes - Ophidiidae
Ophidiidae indet.2 Rafinesque 1810
 Teleostei -
Perciformes indet.8 Stirton 1953 perch-like fish
 Perciformes - Propercarinidae
Propercarina sp.9 Pauca 1929 perch-like fish
 Perciformes -
Percoidei indet.2 Bleeker 1859 perch-like fish
three species (a, b, c)
Oliganodon sp.2 Bannikov 2010 perch-like fish
Oliganodon budensis2 Heckel 1856 perch-like fish
 Perciformes - Sebastidae
cf. Sebastes sp.9 Cuvier 1829 perch-like fish
 Spariformes - Sparidae
 Lophiiformes - Lophiidae
Lophiidae indet.2 Cuvier anglerfish
 Acanthomorphata - Priacanthidae
Priacanthus spinosus2 Weiler 1938
 Acanthomorphata - Chaetodontidae
 Gadiformes - Gadidae
Gadidae indet.9 Rafinesque 1810
 Gadiformes - Phycidae
Protobrotula sp.9 Danil'chenko 1960
 Gadiformes - Merlucciidae
Palaeogadus cf. intergerinus2 Daniltshenko 1947
 Clupeiformes - Clupeoidei
Clupeidae indet.9 Bleeker 1859 hering
sp. a & b
"Sardinella" sardinites2 Heckel 1850 hering
 Gasterosteiformes - Centriscidae
 Gasterosteiformes -
Nerophis sp.2 Rafinesque 1810
 Testudines - Cheloniidae
Chelonia gwinneri n. sp.13 Wegner 1917 green sea turtle
"Chelonia" gwinneri2 Wegner 1917 green sea turtle
sea turtles
Glarichelys sp.8 Zangerl 1958 sea turtle
 Testudines - Trionychidae
cf. Trionyx posterus2 softshell turtle
subgenus Platypeltis
 Charadriiformes - Turnicidae
Turnipax oechslerorum n. sp.6 Mayr and Knopf 2007 buttonquail
 Piciformes -
Rupelramphastoides knopfi n. gen. n. sp.5
Rupelramphastoides knopfi n. gen. n. sp.5 Mayr 2005 bird
additional specimen described by Mayr 2006
 Coraciiformes - Todidae
Palaeotodus itardiensis8 Mourer-Chauviré 1985 bird
Palaeotodus itardiensis2 Mourer-Chauviré 1985 bird
 Passeriformes -
Wieslochia weissi n. gen. n. sp.7
Wieslochia weissi n. gen. n. sp.7 Mayr and Manegold 2006 perching bird
SMF specimen
 Coliiformes - Coliidae
Oligocolius brevitarsus n. gen. n. sp.
Oligocolius brevitarsus n. gen. n. sp. Mayr 2000 mousebird
 Trogoniformes - Trogonidae
cf. Primotrogon sp.4 Mayr 1999 trogon
 Caprimulgiformes - Trochilidae
Eurotrochilus inexpectatus n. gen. n. sp.3 Mayr 2004 hummingbird
see also Mayr 2007
 Gaviiformes - Gaviidae
? Colymboides metzleri n. sp.2 Mayr 2004 loon
 Procellariiformes -
Rupelornis cf. brodkorbi2 bird
two SMNK skeletons
Rupelornis cf. definitus2 van Beneden 1871 bird
 Sirenia -
Sirenia indet.11 sirenian
sea cows
 Sirenia - Dugongidae
cf. Halitherium schinzii8 Kaup 1838 dugong
 Chiroptera - Vespertilionidae
cf. Myotis horaceki2 vesper bat
 Hyaenodonta - Hyainailouridae
Apterodon rauenbergensis n. sp.1 Frey et al. 2010 eutherian
possible carnivore
 Spatangoida - Schizasteridae
"Ova sp." = Schizaster (Ova)2
"Ova sp." = Schizaster (Ova)2 Gray 1825 heart urchin
 Prymnesiophycidae - Prymnesiophycidae
"Coccolithus crassipons" = Coccolithus2
"Coccolithus spp." = Coccolithus2 Schwartz 1959
"Cyclococcolithus spp." = Coccolithus2 Schwartz 1959
Coccolithus pelagicus9 Wallich 1877
Zygrhablithus bijugatus2 Deflandre 1959
Cruciplacolithus sp.2 Hay and Mohler 1927
Braarudosphaera bigelowii2 Gran and Braarud 1935
Pontosphaera sp.2 Lohmann 1961
Markalius inversus2 Deflandre 1954
  - Goniolithaceae
Goniolithus fluckigeri2 Deflandre 1957
 Watznaueriales - Watznaueriaceae
Sphenolithus moriformis2 Bronnimann and Stradner 1960
 Podorhabdales - Biscutaceae
Biscutum constans2 Górka 1957
Plantae indet.11 Haeckel 1866
 Pinales - Pinaceae
 Pinales - Taxodiaceae
Taxodium sp.2 Richard 1810
Sequoia abietina2 coast redwood
 Arecales - Arecaceae
Arecaceae indet.2 von Berchtold and Presl 1820
 Arecales - Palmae
Palmacites lamanonis2 Brongniart 1822 palm
 Cycadales - Zamiaceae
Ceratozamia floersheimensis2 Kvacek 2002 cycads
"Filicopsida indet." = Pteridopsida2
"Filicopsida indet." = Pteridopsida2 Ritgen 1828
 Schizaeales - Schizaeaceae
"Lygodium kaulfussii" = Lygodium kaulfussi2
"Lygodium kaulfussii" = Lygodium kaulfussi2 Heer
Phoenicites sp.2 Brongniart 1828
 Rhamnales - Rosidae
? Berchemia sp.2 Necker and de Candolle 1825
 Theales - Dilleniidae
 Scrophulariales - Asteridae
Oleinites sp.2 Cookson 1947
 Juglandales - Hamamelidae
 Magnoliales - Lauraceae
Dicotylophyllum sp.2 Saporta 1894
 Fabales - Fabaceae
? Leguminocarpon sp.2 Goeppert 1855
 Rosales - Saxifragaceae
 Santalales - Loranthaceae
? Viscophyllum sp.2 Knoll 1904
 Proteales - Platanaceae
Platanus neptuni2 Buzek et al. 1967 plane tree
 Cornales - Symplocaceae
 Fagales - Betulaceae
 Violales - Salicaceae
 Violales - Elaeocarpaceae
 Laminariales - Cystoseiraceae
  - Doliostrobaceae
 Dinoflagellata -
 Peridiniales - Peridiniaceae
Deflandrea sp.2 Eisenack 1938
Deflandrea phosphoritica2 Eisenack 1938
var. spindosa
  - Aulostomes
Spiniferites sp.2 Mantell 1850
 Gonyaulacales -
 Gonyaulacales - Areoligeraceae
Areoligera sp.2 Lejeune-Carpentier 1938
Glaphyrocysta sp.2 Stover and Evitt 1978
 Gonyaulacales - Gonyaulacaceae
Chiropteridium sp.2 Gocht 1960
Apteodinium sp.2 Eisenack 1958
Samlandia chlamydophora2 Eisenack 1954
Reticulatosphaera actinocoronata2 Bujak and Matsuoka 1986
Trachinus minutus
"Trachinus cf. minutus" = Megalolepis minutus2
"Trachinus cf. minutus" = Megalolepis minutus2 Jonet 1958
Lejeunecysta cinctoria2 Lentin and Williams 1981
Proantigonia sp.9, "Capros caprosoides" = Proantigonia caprosoides9
Proantigonia sp.9 Kramberger
"Capros caprosoides" = Proantigonia caprosoides9 Cosmovici 1887