Lothagam-Lower Nawata Mb. (Miocene of Kenya)

Also known as ETE Locality 1064, Lothagam 1B, Lothagam 1A, Lothagam 1, Lothagam, Lothagam-Lower Nawata mbr,

Where: Kenya (2.9° N, 36.1° E: paleocoordinates 2.5° N, 35.1° E)

• coordinate stated in text

• local area-level geographic resolution

When: Lower Nawata Member (Nawata Formation), Tortonian (11.6 - 7.2 Ma)

• K-Ar dating constrains lower Nawata to 7.44 +/- 0.05 Ma and 6.54 +/- 0.04 Ma (Marker Tuff).

Environment/lithology: fluvial; poorly lithified mudstone and poorly lithified sandstone

• Lower Nawata deposits are fluvial and the dominant low-angle epsilon cross-stratification indicates a meandering river. Scale of the upward-fining cycles suggests broad but shallow channels. Paleoenvironmental reconstruction suggests well to poorly drained alluvial settings with regular annual or semiannual dry seasons. River is shallow and meandering with extensive low gradient floodplains. Vegetation is a mosaic of open and closed environments with semideciduous thorn tree and tree savanna common below the Middle Markers and more arid dry thorn bush savannah above.
• In the type section, roughly 20% of the sequence consists of conglomerats, 34% sandstones, 36% mudstones, and 10% altered tephra. Sandstones of the member typically display well-developed low-angle planar (epsilon) cross stratification, along with a variety of medium to large scale trough and planar cross bedding. Mudstones of the member typically display the wedge-shaped polygons and large-scale, slickensided dish fractures of vertisols. The basal strata of the Lower Nawata include numerous volcanic-cobble conglomerates, but such coarse lithologies are not seen higher in the member. The uppermost unit of the Lower Nawata is a prominent marker complex termed the Red Marker. This is a heterogeneous mix of sandstones and mudstones, which have a strong secondary component of analcome and iron oxides. Other noteworthy marker units witin the Lower Nawata include the Lower Markers (an altered tephra complex), the Gateway sandstone, and the Middle Markers (another tephra sequence).

Size classes: macrofossils, mesofossils

Collection methods: bulk, mechanical, sieve,

• Held at the Kenya National Museums (KNM-LT-). Surface collection.

Primary reference: M. G. Leakey and J. M. Harris. 2003. Lothagam: the dawn of humanity in eastern Africa. Lothagam: the dawn of humanity in eastern Africa 678 [A. Behrensmeyer/R. Bobe/R. Bobe]more details

Purpose of describing collection: paleoecologic analysis

PaleoDB collection 22241: authorized by Anna Behrensmeyer, entered by Anna Behrensmeyer on 30.06.1999, edited by Suzanne Cote, Mark Uhen and Philip Mannion

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

unclassified
  -
Malacostraca
 Decapoda - Potamonautidae
Potamonautidae indet. Bott 1970 crab
Actinopteri
 Teleostei -
Perciformes indet. Stirton 1953 perch-like fish
 Perciformes -
Percoidei indet. Bleeker 1859 perch-like fish
 Perciformes - Latidae
Lates niloticus Linnaeus 1758 Nile perch
 Cypriniformes - Cyprinidae
Cyprinidae inet. Bonaparte 1832 carp-like fish
 Teleostei -
 Siluriformes - Mochokidae
Synodontis sp. Cuvier 1816 upside down catfish
 Siluriformes - Bagridae
Bagridae indet. Bleeker 1852 naked catfish
Bagrus aff. sp. Bosc 1816 naked catfish
 Siluriformes - Claroteidae
Clarotes sp. Kner 1855 catfish
 Characiformes - Characidae
 Characiformes - Alestidae
Hydrocynus sp. Cuvier 1816
 Osteoglossiformes - Gymnarchidae
Gymnarchus sp. Cuvier 1829 aba knifefish
 Osteoglossiformes - Osteoglossidae
Heterotis sp. Rüppell 1828 African arowana
Cladistia
 Polypteriformes - Polypteridae
Polypterus sp. Lacépède 1803 bichir
Reptilia
 Testudines - Trionychidae
Trionychidae indet. Gray 1825 softshell turtle
 Testudines - Pantestudinidae
cf. Geochelone indet. Fitzinger 1835 turtle
 Testudines - Podocnemidae
Kenyemys wiliamsi sideneck turtle
Turkanemys pattersoni n. sp. Wood 2003 sideneck turtle
Aves
  -
Aves indet. Linnaeus 1758 bird
 Anseriformes - Anatidae
Anatidae indet. Vigors 1825 waterfowl
 Strigiformes - Strigidae
Strigidae indet. Vigors 1825 true owl
 Gruiformes - Rallidae
Rallidae indet. Vigors 1825 rail
 Pelecaniformes - Ardeidae
Ardeidae indet. Leach 1820 heron
 Ciconiiformes - Ciconiidae
Ciconiidae indet. Sundevall 1836 stork
 Struthioniformes - Struthionidae
cf. Struthio indet. Linnaeus 1758 ostrich
 Aepyornithiformes - Aepyornithidae
Aepyornithidae indet. Bonaparte 1853 elephant bird
 Suliformes - Anhingidae
Anhinga cf. rufa Daudin 1802 African darter
Reptilia
 Crocodylia - Crocodylidae
Euthecodon brumpti Joleaud 1920 crocodile
"Crocodylus cataphractus" = Mecistops cataphractus Cuvier 1825 crocodile
Crocodylus sp.1 Laurenti 1768 crocodile
Crocodylus checchiai1 Maccagno 1947 crocodile
 Crocodylia -
Eogavialis andrewsi Storrs 2003 crocodilian
Mammalia
 Primates - Cercopithecidae
Cercopithecidae indet. Gray 1821 monkey
Colobinae "indet. A" Blyth 1875 monkey
sp. A
Colobinae "indet. B" Blyth 1875 monkey
sp. B
Colobinae "indet. small" Blyth 1875 monkey
sp. (small)
Parapapio lothagamensis n. sp. Leakey et al. 2003 monkey
 Rodentia - Muridae
Muridae indet. Illiger 1811 mouse
 Rodentia - Hystricidae
Hystrix sp. Linnaeus 1758 porcupine
(small)
 Rodentia - Thryonomyidae
 Lagomorpha - Leporidae
Alilepus sp. Dice 1931 rabbit
 Perissodactyla - Rhinocerotidae
 Perissodactyla - Equidae
Hippotherium cf. primigenium von Meyer 1829 hipparionine horse
Eurygnathohippus feibeli n. sp. hipparionine horse
Eurygnathohippus turkanense n. sp. Hooijer and Maglio 1974 hipparionine horse
 Carnivora - Amphicyonidae
Amphicyonidae indet. Haeckel 1886 bear-dog
Bonisicyon illacabo2 Werdelin 2009 bear-dog
 Carnivora - Mustelidae
Mellivorinae indet. Gray 1865 ratel
Ekorus ekakeran n. gen. n. sp. Werdelin 2003 ratel
Vishnuonyx angololensis mustelid carnivore
 Carnivora - Felidae
Lokotunjailurus emageritus Werdelin 2003 cat
cf. Metailurus sp. Zdansky 1924 cat
Dinofelis sp. Zdansky 1924 cat
 Carnivora - Viverridae
Viverridae "indet. large" Gray 1821 civet
large species
cf. Genetta sp. Cuvier 1816 civet
sp. A
Viverrinae indet. Gray 1821 civet
Viverra cf. leakeyi Petter 1963 civet
 Carnivora - Hyaenidae
 Tubulidentata - Orycteropodidae
Orycteropus sp. Geoffroy 1791 aardvark
Leptorycteropus guilielmi Patterson 1975 aardvark
 Proboscidea - Gomphotheriidae
Anancus kenyensis MacInnes 1942 gomphothere
 Proboscidea - Elephantidae
Elephantidae "indet. A" Gray 1821 elephant
sp. A
Elephantidae indet. Gray 1821 elephant
"Primelephas gomphotheroides" = Primelephas korotorensis Coppens 1965 elephant
Stegotetrabelodon orbus Maglio 1970 elephant
 Proboscidea - Deinotheriidae
Deinotherium bozasi Arambourg 1934 deinothere
 Ungulata - Suidae
cf. Kubanochoerus sp. Gabunia 1955 pig
originally entered as "cf. Kubanocheorus sp."
Nyanzachoerus tulotus pig
originally entered as "Nyanzachoerus syrticus tulotus"
"Nyanzachoerus cf. syrticus" = Sivachoerus syrticus Leonardi 1954 pig
Potamochoerus sp. Gray 1854 pig
"Nyanzachoerus devauxi" = Propotamochoerus devauxi Arambourg 1968 pig
 Ungulata - Hippopotamidae
"Hexaprotodon lothagamensis n. sp." = Archaeopotamus lothagamensis, "Hexaprotodon harvardi" = Archaeopotamus harvardi, Hexaprotodon sp.
"Hexaprotodon lothagamensis n. sp." = Archaeopotamus lothagamensis Weston 2000 hippopotamus
"Hexaprotodon harvardi" = Archaeopotamus harvardi Coryndon 1977 hippopotamus
Hexaprotodon sp. Falconer and Cautley 1836 pygmy hippo
 Ungulata - Giraffidae
cf. Sivatherium sp. Falconer and Cautley 1836 giraffe
Palaeotragus sp. Gaudry 1861 giraffe
Palaeotragus germaini Arambourg 1959 giraffe
 Ungulata - Bovidae
Bovini indet. Gray 1821 antelope
Tragelaphini indet. Blyth 1863 antelope
Boselaphini indet. Knottnerus-Meyer 1997 antelope
Raphicerus sp. Smith 1827 antelope
originally entered as "Raphiceras sp."
Madoqua sp. Ogilby 1837 dikdik
Gazella sp. Blaineville 1816 gazelle
Alcelaphini indet. Brookes 1876 antelope
Damalacra "sp. A" Gentry 1980 antelope
sp. A
Damalacra "sp. B" Gentry 1980 antelope
sp. B
Hippotragini indet. Sundevall 1845 antelope
Hippotragus sp. Sundevall 1845 antelope
Reduncini indet. Knottnerus-Meyer 1907 antelope
Kobus presigmoidalis n. sp. Harris 2003 antelope
Menelikia leakeyi Harris 1991 antelope
Aepyceros premelampus Harris 2003 impala
Tragoportax "sp. A" Pilgrim 1937 antelope
sp. A
Tragoportax "sp. B" Pilgrim 1937 antelope
sp. B
Osteichthyes
 Ceratodontiformes - Lepidosirenidae
Protopterus sp. Agassiz 1843 african lungfish
.