Phoebus Landing, Black River (Cretaceous of the United States)

Also known as L&W locality 4, milepost 68, Cape Fear

Where: Bladen County, North Carolina (34.6° N, 78.5° W: paleocoordinates 35.0° N, 50.2° W)

• coordinate estimated from map

• small collection-level geographic resolution

When: Tar Heel Formation (Black Creek Group), Early/Lower Campanian (83.5 - 70.6 Ma)

• uppermost part of the formation and within the Exogyra ponderosa zone

•Recent pollen analysis (Self-Trail et al., 2004) determined that the vertebrate fauna from the Tar Heel Formation at Phoebus Landing is from the upper part of the early Campanian.

• bed-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: transition zone or lower shoreface; argillaceous, sandy siltstone and lenticular sandstone

• Varied depositional circumstances including an "onlap condition with in an encroachment of ocean onto a gently sloping coastal plain" and "nearshore, freshwater and tidal brackish-water streamthat flowed across the marine shale after a slight regression of the sea"
• "channel fill primarily composed of clayey sitls, clay concretions, coarse sands, and pebbles"; "The bone bearing bed at Phoebus Landing consists of an unconsolidated sand lens...The sand bed overlies and is downcut into a shale bed of the Black Creek Formation...The channel sand is overlain by a consolidated sandstone bed six inches thick...The channel sand contains mud blebs which are large fragments of shale reworked from the underlying shale bed."

Size classes: macrofossils, mesofossils

Collected by Berry & Stephenson in 1905, 1907; reposited in the AMNH, USNM

Collection methods: quarrying, surface (float), surface (in situ), mechanical,

• Also North Carolina State Museum of Natural History (NCSM)

Primary reference: O. P. Hay. 1908. The fossil turtles of North America. Carnegie Institution of Washington Publication 75:1-568 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano/M. Carrano]more details

Purpose of describing collection: taxonomic analysis

PaleoDB collection 57918: authorized by Matthew Carrano, entered by Kaitlin Maguire on 06.01.2006, edited by Matthew Carrano, Roger Benson, Mark Uhen and John Alroy

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

Bivalvia
  -
"Pelecypoda indet." = Bivalvia9
"Pelecypoda indet." = Bivalvia9 Linnaeus 1758 clam
Gastropoda
  -
Gastropoda indet.9 Cuvier 1797 snail
 Naticoidea - Naticidae
"Albula sp." = Polinices9
"Albula sp." = Polinices9 Monfort 1810 moon snail
NJSM 14613
Chondrichthyes
 Squatiniformes - Squatinidae
Squatina hassei9 Leriche 1929 angel shark
USNM 421729; NJSM 14614
 Hybodontiformes - Hybodontidae
Hybodus sp.9 Agassiz 1837 elasmobranch
USNM 421725; NJSM 14618, 14612
Hybodus montanensis9 Case 1978 elasmobranch
NJSM 14174, 14611
 Hybodontiformes - Acrodontidae
Asteracanthus sp.8 Agassiz 1837 elasmobranch
FHKSCM 13021
Asteracanthus sp.2 Agassiz 1837 elasmobranch
FHKSCM 13022
 Sclerorhynchiformes - Sclerorhynchidae
Ischyrhiza mira5 Leidy 1856 elasmobranch
USNM 421726; NJSM 14011, 14167, 14263, 14265, 14608; ANSP 15311
Ischyrhiza mira2 Leidy 1856 elasmobranch
FHKSCM 13015-3
 Myliobatiformes - Dasyatidae
Dasyatidae indet.8 Jordan 1888 whiptail stingray
FHKSCM 13023-2
Hypolophus ? sp.7 Muller and Henle 1837 whiptail stingray
 Myliobatiformes - Rhombodontidae
"Rhombodus levis" = Rhombodus laevis9
"Rhombodus levis" = Rhombodus laevis9 Cappetta and Case 1975 stingray
NJSM 14261
 Myliobatiformes - Myliobatidae
Brachyrhizodus witchitaensis9 eagle ray
USNM 421718; NJSM 14010
Brachyrhizodus wichitaensis2 Romer 1942 eagle ray
FHKSCM 13025, 13024-9
 Lamniformes - Anacoracidae
Squalicorax kaupi9 Agassiz 1843 crow shark
USNM 421721; NJSM 14007, 14009, 14275
Squalicorax cf. pristodontus5 Agassiz 1843 crow shark
ANSP 15314
 Lamniformes - Odontaspididae
Synodontaspis holmdelensis9 Cappetta and Case 1975 sand tiger shark
NJSM 14610
Odontaspis samhammeri9 sand tiger shark
USNM 421719; NJSM 14143
 Euselachii - Mitsukurinidae
Scapanorhynchus texanus9 Roemer 1852 goblin shark
USNM 421722-421724; NJSM 14006, 14008, 14273, 14279
Scapanorhynchus texanus2 Roemer 1852 goblin shark
ANSP 15313, several hundred specimens
Scapanorhynchus texanus2 Roemer 1852 goblin shark
ANSP 15315, several hundred specimens
 Chimaeriformes - Callorhynchidae
Ischyodus cf. bifurcatus9 plownose chimaera
NJSM 14262, 14177, 14040
Gnathostomata
  -
Actinopteri
 Elopiformes - Phyllodontidae
Paralbula casei9 Estes 1969
ANSP 15312; NJSM 14264
 Salmoniformes - Enchodontidae
Enchodus cf. petrosus9 Cope 1874
NJSM 14148
 Alepisauriformes - Dercetidae
"Cylindracanthus ornatus" = Cylindracanthus rectus9
"Cylindracanthus ornatus" = Cylindracanthus rectus9 Agassiz 1843
 Ichthyodectiformes - Saurodontidae
Saurodon sp.9 Hays 1829
USNM 392103
 Ichthyodectiformes - Ichthyodectidae
"Polygonodon rectus" = Xiphactinus vetus5, Xiphactinus audax9
"Polygonodon rectus" = Xiphactinus vetus5 Leidy 1856
ANSP 15324
Xiphactinus audax9 Leidy 1870
NJSM 14144, 14176
 Pycnodontiformes - Pycnodontidae
"Pycnodus phaseolus" = Anomoeodus phaseolus2, "Pycnodus phaseolus" = Anomoeodus phaseolus2, "Pycnodus phaseolus" = Anomoeodus phaseolus2
"Pycnodus phaseolus" = Anomoeodus phaseolus2 Hay 1899
NJSM 14731; FHKSCM 13019-2
"Pycnodus phaseolus" = Anomoeodus phaseolus2 Hay 1899
FHKSCM 13018
"Pycnodus phaseolus" = Anomoeodus phaseolus2 Hay 1899
FHKSCM 13017-2
 Lepisosteiformes - Lepisosteidae
Lepisosteidae indet.9 Cuvier 1825 gar
USNM 421720, 421717; NJSM 14024, 14271, 14025
Reptilia
 Testudines - Trionychidae
Trionychidae indet.1 Gray 1825 softshell turtle
ANSP 15321
Amyda sp.10 Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire 1809 softshell turtle
 Testudines - Adocidae
Adocus sp.9 Cope 1868 turtle
 Testudines - Pantrionychidae
Trionyx halophilus6 Cope 1869 turtle
ANSP 15305
 Testudines - Bothremydidae
Chedighaii sp.3 Gaffney et al. 2006 sideneck turtle
NCSM 23681, maxilla & jugal
Chedighaii hutchisoni n. sp.3 Gaffney et al. 2006 sideneck turtle
KUVP 14765, skull
"Bothremys barberi" = Chedighaii barberi9 Schmidt 1940 sideneck turtle
Bothremydina indet.3 Gaffney et al. 2006 sideneck turtle
NCSM 12766, otic chamber
Bothremys sp.3 Leidy 1865 sideneck turtle
NCSM 14499, lower jaw
Bothremys cooki3 Leidy 1865 sideneck turtle
 Testudines -
Taphrosphys dares n. sp.5 Hay 1908 sideneck turtle
ANSP 15304; first reported by Hay (1908) with unknown locality data
 Saurischia -
Theropoda indet.6 theropod
ANSP 15327
 Avetheropoda - Tyrannosauridae
Tyrannosauridae indet.2 Osborn 1906 tyrannosaurid
ANSP 15303, 15331, USNM 7199
 Avetheropoda - Ornithomimidae
cf. Ornithomimus sp.2 Marsh 1890 ornithomimid
ANSP 15319
 Neornithischia - Hadrosauridae
Hadrosauridae indet.4 Cope 1869 hadrosaurid
USNM 5963
Hadrosaurinae indet.2 Lambe 1918 hadrosaurine
USNM 7093, 7094
Hypsibema crassicauda10 Cope 1869 hadrosaurid
ANSP 15307, 15322, 15329; USNM 6136
Hadrosaurus ? minor4 Cope 1869 hadrosaurid
USNM 7096
 Crocodylia -
"Leidyosuchus cf. formidabilis" = Borealosuchus formidabilis2, "Leidyosuchus cf. formidabilis" = Borealosuchus formidabilis2, "Thecachampsa rugosa" = Deinosuchus rugosus10, "Polydectes biturgidus" = Deinosuchus rugosus10
"Leidyosuchus cf. formidabilis" = Borealosuchus formidabilis2 Erickson 1976 crocodilian
ANSP 15317
"Leidyosuchus cf. formidabilis" = Borealosuchus formidabilis2 Erickson 1976 crocodilian
ANSP 15318
"Thecachampsa rugosa" = Deinosuchus rugosus10 Emmons 1858 crocodilian
"Polydectes biturgidus" = Deinosuchus rugosus10 Emmons 1858 crocodilian
 Pseudosuchia - Teratosauridae
? Zatomus sp.10 Cope 1871 teratosaurid
 Squamata - Mosasauridae
Prognathodon sp.9 Dollo 1889 mosasaur
Halisaurus sp.9 Marsh 1869 mosasaur
Platecarpus sp.9 Cope 1869 mosasaur
ANSP 15316
? Tylosaurus sp.5 Marsh 1872 mosasaur
USNM 3889
Stephanodus
  - Trigonodontidae
Stephanodus sp.9 Zittel 1883
USNM 421730; NJSM 14033