Al-Sarrar, Locality 8, Dam Formation (Miocene of Saudi Arabia)

Where: Saudi Arabia (26.0° N, 49.4° E: paleocoordinates 22.6° N, 46.5° E)

• coordinate based on nearby landmark

When: Dam Formation, Early/Lower Miocene (23.0 - 16.0 Ma)

• Late Early Miocene. There are 3 Formations in the succession - the Hadruck, Dam and Hofuf (Hofuf overlies the others). Type section of the Dam Formation is Jabal al Lidam. The depth of the formation at Al-Sarrar varies, but is around 30m. Near the Arabian Gulf the Formation is entirely marine, with more continental facies inland. The Al-Sarrar area is an area of 'continental sediments interbedded with the marine series'.

•Fauna has been collected from a number of localities which have been entered individually.

Environment/lithology: fluvial

• 'The lithologies, sedimentary structures (presence of palaeocurrents in loc. 6 and 8), the character of the fauna exclusively continental and the deposition laid down into low energy zone (specially in loc. 6 and 8 explaining the scarcity of small vertebrates and the association of postcranial bones) suggest a fluviatile environment.'
• Two levels with fossils - level 7, highly fossiliferous limestone (marine invertebrate fossils, mainly pelecypods). Level 3, fossiliferous silt containing terrestrial vertebrate remains (level 3 fauna described in the paper)

Size classes: macrofossils, mesofossils

Collection methods: bulk,

• Al-Sarrar localities 4-9 and 11-24 can all be dated within a short period of time. Localities 5,6,7,8, and 9 are considered contemporaneous.

•1 ton of unconsolidated sand and silt from localities 6,8,9 and 21, has been sifted and has produced rodent teeth.

•All fossil material housed in the Department of Antiquities and Museums at Riyadh.

Primary reference: H. Thomas, S. Sen, M. Khan, B. Battail, and G. Ligabue. 1982. The Lower Miocene Fauna of Al-Sarrar (Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia). Atlal 5(3a):109-136 [A. Turner/H. O'Regan/H. O'Regan]more details

Purpose of describing collection: general faunal/floral analysis

PaleoDB collection 47069: authorized by Alan Turner, entered by Hannah O'Regan on 07.02.2005, edited by Mark Uhen and Philip Mannion

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

• Sirenia ribs found in surface deposits, but cannot be correlated with uppermost beds of localities 6, 8 and 9.
 Solifugae -
Galeodes (Galeodes) sp. Olivier 1791 camel spider
 Ostreida - Ostreidae
Ostrea latimarginata Vredenburg 1908 oyster
 Cardiida - Ungulinidae
cf. Diplodonta sp. Bronn 1831 clam
 Cardiida - Veneridae
cf. Clementia sp. Gray 1847 venus clam
 Lucinida - Lucinidae
Gonimyrtea sp. Marwick 1929 clam
 Stromboidea - Strombidae
Strombus sp. Linnaeus 1758 conch
 Sorbeoconcha - Turritellidae
Turritella sp. Lamarck 1799 turret shell
 Myliobatiformes - Dasyatidae
Dasyatis sp. Rafinesque 1810 whiptail stingray
 Salientia -
Anura indet. frog
Bufonoids and Ranoids indet.
 Testudines - Pantestudinidae
Geochelone sp. Fitzinger 1835 turtle
Geochelone sensu lato sp. one or two species.
 Pelecaniformes - Threskiornithidae
Threskiornithidae indet. Richmond 1917 ibis
Humerus fragment of an Ibis (AS 745).
 Loricata -
Crocodylia indet.1 crocodilian
 Squamata - Boidae
Boidae indet. Gray 1825 boa
Eryx - Gongylophis group.
 Squamata - Colubridae
Colubridae indet. Oppel 1811 colubrid snake
 Squamata - Amphisbaenidae
 Primates -
? Primates indet. Linnaeus 1758 primate
1 lateral incisor (AS 676), 'may perhaps belong to a primate.'
 Rodentia - Muridae
"Gerbillidae indet." = Gerbillinae
"Gerbillidae indet." = Gerbillinae Gray 1825 gerbil
1 very small lower molar, probably the second molar. Resembles Leakeymys ternani.
 Rodentia - Cricetidae
Cricetidae indet. Fischer von Waldheim 1817 mouse
Plentiful remains, belonging to a new taxon.
 Rodentia - Pedetidae
Megapedetes cf. pentadactylus springhare
3 molars.
 Rodentia - Ctenodactylidae
Metasayimys cf. intermedius gundi
4 dental fragments belong to a medium sized species of gundi group.
 Rodentia - Thryonomyidae
Paraphiomys knolli n. sp.2 López-Antoñazas and Sen 2005 cane rat
10 isolated molars.
 Lagomorpha - Ochotonidae
Ochotonidae indet. Thomas 1897 pika
2 upper and 1 lower molar.
 Lipotyphla - Erinaceidae
Erinaceidae indet. Fischer von Waldheim 1817 hedgehog
2 upper premolars.
 Perissodactyla - Rhinocerotidae
Rhinocerotidae indet. Gray 1821 rhinoceros
1 isolated upper milk molar.
Aceratherium sp. Kaup 1834 rhinoceros
1 left humerus (AS 762), 1 right lunate (AS 686), 1 partial left lunate (AS 716), 1 pisiform (AS 779), 1 right magnum (AS 687), 1 right femur (AS 763), 1 right patella (AS 684), 1 associated right tibia and fibula (AS 761), 1 left astragalus (AS 737), 1 right calcaneum (AS 1204), 1 right cuboid (AS 740), 1 right Mt III (AS 678), 1 first phalanx of lateral digit (AS 718), 2 second phalanx of central digit (AS 693, AS 694).
 Carnivora - Mustelidae
Mionictis sp. Matthew 1924 badger
Right lower canine (AS 673), proximal left femur (AS 722), proximal right tibia (AS 721), right calcaneum (AS 709)
 Carnivora - Felidae
Pseudaelurus turnauensis Hoernes 1882 cat
1 lower left M1 (674), 1 distal right tibia (AS 741)
 Carnivora - Viverridae
Viverra sp. Linnaeus 1758 civet
Upper right P4 (AS 748).
 Proboscidea - Gomphotheriidae
Gomphotherium sp. Burmeister 1837 gomphothere
Many specimens, mainly juvenile in fragmentary condition. One adult mandible - AS 764. Milk teeth, two permanent lower incisors (AS 743, 746),
 Proboscidea - Deinotheriidae
cf. Deinotherium sp. Kaup 1825 deinothere
Scarce material, rather large form.
 Hyracoidea - Titanohyracidae
"Pachyhyrax aff. championi" = Afrohyrax championi
"Pachyhyrax aff. championi" = Afrohyrax championi Arambourg 1933 hyrax
maxillary fragment with unworn M1-2 (AS 669), Upper M3 fragment (AS 671), 1 ectoloph fragment (no number) and an unworn right lower first incisor (AS 672)
 Ungulata - Suidae
Suidae indet. Gray 1821 pig
A giant suid larger than Bunolistriodon massai. 2 specimens definitely from this locality - AS 744 (and ungual phalanx) and AS 692 (a proximal phalanx). AS 734 ( a very worn lower P3 or P4) is possibly from this locality.
Listriodon sp. von Meyer 1846 pig
1 distal sesamoid (AS 736), 1 distal humerus (AS 750)
 Ungulata - Giraffidae
cf. Canthumeryx sirtensis Hamilton 1973 giraffe
Specimens include: 1 right upper M1 (AS 670), 1 occipital fragment (AS 719), 1 left metacarpal (AS 765), 1 right humerus (AS 679), 1 left radius (AS 766), 1 left scapula fragment (AS 720).