Vero (Pleistocene of the United States)

Where: Indian River County, Florida (27.6° N, 80.4° W: paleocoordinates 27.6° N, 80.4° W)

• coordinate based on nearby landmark

• small collection-level geographic resolution

When: Late/Upper Pleistocene (0.1 - 0.0 Ma)

• Stratum 3 of Vero excavation produced most materials (= "muck bed"); Stratum 2 less productive but supposedly not significantly older

•plants are mostly from layer No. 3 and vertebrates are mostly from layer No. 2 according to Hrdlicka 1917

• bed-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: "channel"; poorly lithified sandstone and unlithified, white, carbonaceous sandstone

• "The lower sand [= Stratum 2] marks the recession of the sea in which the underlying shell marl was formed. The upper beds (No. 3) mark successive seasonal layers of valley filling in the narrow valley of a small stream. The stream was apparently always small."
• "The former [human skeleton] lay in dark and somewhat indurated sands, layer No. 2 of Sellards, the latter for the most part at the base of layer No. 3, the muck deposit of the stream bed... layer No. 2 is seen to be overlain by a stratum of similar, but somewhat lighter, sandy deposits covered by a layer of marl [ranging] from about 5 to 9 inches in thickness, and when freshly exposed is of the consistency of fresh mortar, but on exposure hardens to fairly solid rock... The second skeleton lay... in some loose white sand and vegetable matter at the base of the muck layer" (Hrdlicka 1917)

Size classes: macrofossils, mesofossils

Collected in 1913

Collection methods: quarrying, mechanical,

Primary reference: R. W. Shufeldt. 1917. Fossil birds found at Vero, Florida. Florida State Geological Survey Annual Report 9:35-42 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano/J. Alroy]more details

Purpose of describing collection: general faunal/floral analysis

PaleoDB collection 34269: authorized by Matthew Carrano, entered by Matthew Carrano on 25.08.2003, edited by Richard Hulbert, Evangelos Vlachos, John Alroy, Austin Hendy and Uta Merkel

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

 Arcida - Arcidae
Acar domingensis7, "Arca cf. umbonata" = Arca (Arca) imbricata11, Arca (Noetia) limula11, "Scapharca (Argina) campechiensis" = Arca (Argina)11, "Scapharca (Cunearca) incongrus" = Anadara (Cunearca)11, "Scapharca (Scapharca) transversa" = Anadara (Larkinia) transversa11
Acar domingensis7 Lamarck 1819 miniature ark
"Arca cf. umbonata" = Arca (Arca) imbricata11 Bruguière 1789 ark
Arca (Noetia) limula11 Conrad 1832 ark
"Scapharca (Argina) campechiensis" = Arca (Argina)11 ark
"Scapharca (Cunearca) incongrus" = Anadara (Cunearca)11 ark
"Scapharca (Scapharca) transversa" = Anadara (Larkinia) transversa11 Say 1822 ark
 Arcida - Glycymerididae
"Glycymeris pectinata" = Tucetona pectinata11, Glycymeris americana11
"Glycymeris pectinata" = Tucetona pectinata11 Gmelin 1791 clam
Glycymeris americana11 Defrance 1826 clam
 Pectinida - Pectinoidae
"Pecten gibbus" = Argopecten gibbus11
"Pecten gibbus" = Argopecten gibbus11 Linnaeus 1758 calico scallop
 Pectinida - Plicatulidae
 Pectinida - Anomiidae
Anomia simplex11 d'Orbigny 1845 jingle
 Carditida - Crassatellidae
Crassinella sp.11 Guppy 1874 clam
Crassinella ? lunulata11 Conrad 1834 clam
 Carditida - Carditidae
"Venericardia perplana" = Pteromeris perplana11, "Cardita (Carditamera) floridana" = Carditamera floridana11, "Venericardia tridentata" = Pleuromeris tridentata11
"Venericardia perplana" = Pteromeris perplana11 Dall 1903 clam
"Cardita (Carditamera) floridana" = Carditamera floridana11 Conrad 1838 clam
"Venericardia tridentata" = Pleuromeris tridentata11 Say 1826 clam
 Pholadida - Corbulidae
"Corbula ? cuneata" = Caryocorbula cuneata11
"Corbula ? cuneata" = Caryocorbula cuneata11 Say 1824 clam
 Cardiida -
"Donax variabilis" = Serrula variabilis11
"Donax variabilis" = Serrula variabilis11 Say 1822 clam
 Cardiida - Mactridae
Mactra sp.11 Linnaeus 1767 clam
Mulinia lateralis11 Say 1822 clam
"Spisula solidissima" = Hemimactra solidissima11 Dilwyn 1817 clam
 Cardiida - Veneridae
Venus sp.11, Chione interpurpurea11, Chione sp.11, Chione cancellata11, "Venus campechiensis" = Mercenaria campechiensis11, "Venus mortoni" = Mercenaria campechiensis11, Anomalocardia cuneimeris11, "Chione (Timoclea) grus" = Timoclea grus11, "Chione (Lirophora) latilirata" = Lirophora (Lirophora) latilirata11, Dosinia distans11, Dosinia sp.11, Transennella caloosana11
Venus sp.11 Linnaeus 1758 venus clam
Chione interpurpurea11 venus clam
Chione sp.11 von Mühlfield 1811 venus clam
Chione cancellata11 Linnaeus 1767 venus clam
"Venus campechiensis" = Mercenaria campechiensis11 Gmelin 1791 quahog
"Venus mortoni" = Mercenaria campechiensis11 Gmelin 1791 quahog
Anomalocardia cuneimeris11 Conrad 1846 venus clam
"Chione (Timoclea) grus" = Timoclea grus11 Holmes 1858 venus clam
"Chione (Lirophora) latilirata" = Lirophora (Lirophora) latilirata11 Conrad 1841 venus clam
Dosinia distans11 venus clam
Dosinia sp.11 Scopoli 1777 venus clam
 Cardiida - Donacidae
 Cardiida - Tellinidae
Strigilla sp.11, "Strigilla flexuosa" = Strigilla mirabilis11
Strigilla sp.11 Turton 1822 tellin clam
"Strigilla flexuosa" = Strigilla mirabilis11 Philippi 1841 tellin clam
 Cardiida - Semelidae
Semele ? bellastriata11 Conrad 1837 clam
Semele proficua11 Pulteney 1799 clam
 Cardiida - Cardiidae
"Cardium (Trachycardium) muricatum" = Trachycardium muricatum11, "Cardium (Trachycardium) isocardia" = Trachycardium (Trachycardium) isocardia11, "Cardium (Laevicardium) serratum" = Laevicardium serratum11, Cardium (Laevicardium) mortoni11, "Cardium (Cerastoderma) robustum" = Dinocardium robustum11
"Cardium (Trachycardium) muricatum" = Trachycardium muricatum11 Linnaeus 1758 cockle
"Cardium (Trachycardium) isocardia" = Trachycardium (Trachycardium) isocardia11 Linnaeus 1758 cockle
"Cardium (Laevicardium) serratum" = Laevicardium serratum11 Linnaeus 1758 cockle
Cardium (Laevicardium) mortoni11 Conrad 1831 cockle
"Cardium (Cerastoderma) robustum" = Dinocardium robustum11 Lightfoot 1786 cockle
 Lucinida - Lucinidae
"Divaricella quadrisulcata" = Divalinga quadrisulcata11, "Phacoides (Parvilucina) multilineatus" = Parvilucina multistriata11, Phacoides aff. nasuta11, Phacoides sp.11, "Phacoides floridanus" = Stewartia floridana11
"Divaricella quadrisulcata" = Divalinga quadrisulcata11 d'Orbigny 1846 clam
"Phacoides (Parvilucina) multilineatus" = Parvilucina multistriata11 Conrad 1841 clam
Phacoides sp.11 Blainville 1825 clam
"Phacoides floridanus" = Stewartia floridana11 Conrad 1833 clam
 Nuculida - Nuculidae
"Nucula proxima" = Nucula (Nucula) proxima11
"Nucula proxima" = Nucula (Nucula) proxima11 Say 1820 Atlantic Nut Clam
 Ptenoglossa - Epitoniidae
Epitonium lineata11 wentletrap
Epitonium sp.11 Bolten 1798 wentletrap
 Neogastropoda - Olividae
"Olivella ? jaspidea" = Jaspidella jaspidea11, "Oliva literata" = Oliva (Ispidula) sayana11, Olivella mutica11
"Olivella ? jaspidea" = Jaspidella jaspidea11 Gmelin 1791 olive snail
"Oliva literata" = Oliva (Ispidula) sayana11 Ravenel 1834 olive snail
Olivella mutica11 Say 1822 olive snail
 Neogastropoda - Columbellidae
"Columbella avara" = Costoanachis avara11
"Columbella avara" = Costoanachis avara11 Say 1822 snail
 Neogastropoda - Nassariidae
"Nassa acuta" = Nassarius (Nassarius) acutus11
"Nassa acuta" = Nassarius (Nassarius) acutus11 Say 1822 snail
 Neogastropoda - Melongenidae
Melongena corona11 Gmelin 1791 snail
Busycon perversum11 Linnaeus 1758 whelk
Busycon carica11 Gmelin 1792 whelk
 Neogastropoda - Fasciolariidae
"Fasciolaria distans" = Cinctura lilium11
"Fasciolaria distans" = Cinctura lilium11 Fischer 1807 snail
 Neogastropoda - Marginellidae
"Marginella aff. apicina" = Prunum apicinum11, Marginella sp.11
"Marginella aff. apicina" = Prunum apicinum11 Menke 1828 margin shell
Marginella sp.11 Lamarck 1799 margin shell
 Neogastropoda - Muricidae
? Urosalpinx sp.11 Stimpson 1865 murex snail
Eupleura caudata11 Say 1822 murex snail
Purpura haemostoma11 murex snail
Murex fulvenscens11 murex snail
 Neogastropoda - Terebridae
"Terebra dislocata" = Strioterebrum dislocatum11, "Terebra concava" = Strioterebrum concava11, "Terebra cinerea" = Hastula cinerea11
"Terebra dislocata" = Strioterebrum dislocatum11 Say 1822 auger snail
"Terebra concava" = Strioterebrum concava11 Say 1827 auger snail
"Terebra cinerea" = Hastula cinerea11 Born 1778 auger snail
 Littorinoidea - Littorinidae
"Littorina irrorata" = Littoraria irrorata11
"Littorina irrorata" = Littoraria irrorata11 Say 1822 periwinkle
 Naticoidea - Naticidae
"Sigaretus perspectivus" = Sinum perspectivum11, "Neverita duplicata" = Neverita duplicatus11
"Sigaretus perspectivus" = Sinum perspectivum11 Say 1831 moon snail
"Neverita duplicata" = Neverita duplicatus11 Say 1822 moon snail
 Vermetoidea - Vermetidae
"Petaloconchus irregularis" = Dendropoma irregulare11
"Petaloconchus irregularis" = Dendropoma irregulare11 d'Orbigny 1841 worm shell
 Calyptraeoidea - Calyptraeidae
Crepidula plana11 Say 1822 slipper shell
Crepidula fornicata11 Linnaeus 1758 slipper shell
 Sorbeoconcha - Turritellidae
Vermicularia nigricana11 turret shell
Turritella sp.11 Lamarck 1799 turret shell
 Sorbeoconcha - Cerithiidae
Cerithium sp.11, Cerithium aff. muscarum11, "Cerithium floridanum" = Cerithium atratum11
Cerithium sp.11 Bruguière 1789 cerith snail
Cerithium aff. muscarum11 Say 1832 cerith snail
"Cerithium floridanum" = Cerithium atratum11 Born 1778 cerith snail
 Sorbeoconcha - Modulidae
"Modulus floridanus" = Modulus modulus11
"Modulus floridanus" = Modulus modulus11 Linnaeus 1758 snail
 Fissurelloidea - Fissurellidae
"Fissurella alternata" = Diodora cayenensis11
"Fissurella alternata" = Diodora cayenensis11 Lamarck 1822 snail
 Cheilostomata - Microporidae
Cupularia denticulata11 Conrad 1841
 Myliobatiformes - Myliobatidae
"Aetobatis narinari" = Aetobatus6
"Aetobatis narinari" = Aetobatus6 eagle ray
 Carangiformes - Carangidae
Caranx sp.6 Lacépède 1802
not C. hippos
 Lepisosteiformes - Lepisosteidae
 Caudata - Urodela
Amphiuma means6 Garden 1821 two-toed amphiuma
Siren lacertina6 Linnaeus 1766 greater siren
 Testudines - Cheloniidae
Chelonia mydas6 Linnaeus 1758 green turtle
Caretta caretta6 Linnaeus 1758 loggerhead sea turtle
 Testudines - Panchelydridae
"Chelydra laticarinata n. sp." = Chelydra serpentina5, "Chelydra sculpta" = Chelydra serpentina6, "Chelydra sculpta n. sp." = Chelydra serpentina5
"Chelydra laticarinata n. sp." = Chelydra serpentina5 Linnaeus 1758 Common snapping turtle
USNM V8827 (holotype, formerly FGS 7094), an isolated left peripheral VI (Hay 1916, pl. 6.6, 7)
"Chelydra sculpta" = Chelydra serpentina6 Linnaeus 1758 Common snapping turtle
"Chelydra sculpta n. sp." = Chelydra serpentina5 Linnaeus 1758 Common snapping turtle
USNM V8826 (holotype, formerly FGS 5510), an isolated right peripheral IX
 Testudines - Pantestudinidae
"Testudo sellardsi n. sp." = Hesperotestudo crassiscutata5, Testudo luciae n. sp.5, Gopherus polyphemus6, Gopherus praecedens n. sp.5
"Testudo sellardsi n. sp." = Hesperotestudo crassiscutata5 Leidy 1889 turtle
USNM 8817 (holotype), a left xiphiplastron (Hay 1916a, pl. 8.6–8; Auffenberg 1963, fig. 17).
Testudo luciae n. sp.5 Hay 1916 turtle
USNM 8818 (holotype), a partial right hypoplastron (Hay 1916a, pl. 9.5; Auffenberg 1963, fig. 17).
Gopherus polyphemus6 Daudin 1802 Florida gopher tortoise
Gopherus praecedens n. sp.5 Hay 1916 turtle
USNM 8828 (holotype), a left xiphiplastron (Hay 1916a, pl. 4.1–2), formerly cataloged under FGS 5463
 Testudines -
? Trachemys nuchocarinata6 Hay 1916 turtle
 Testudines - Panemydidae
Trachemys sculpta5, "Terrapene antipex" = Terrapene putnami6, "Terrapene canaliculata" = Terrapene putnami4, "Terrapene innoxia" = Terrapene carolina6, Pseudemys floridana6, "Trachemys bisornata" = Pseudemys bisornatus5
Trachemys sculpta5 Hay 1908 slider
"Terrapene antipex" = Terrapene putnami6 Hay 1906 box turtle
many specimens; single bones
"Terrapene canaliculata" = Terrapene putnami4 Hay 1906 box turtle
USNM 11330, AM 25-144
"Terrapene innoxia" = Terrapene carolina6 Linnaeus 1758 box turtle
many specimens including complete carapaces
Pseudemys floridana6 Le Conte 1830 peninsula cooter
"Pseudemys floridianus persimilis"
"Trachemys bisornata" = Pseudemys bisornatus5 Cope 1877 turtle
distal end of a fifth costal
Aves indet. Linnaeus 1758 bird
Stratum 3
 Charadriiformes - Laridae
? Larus ? sp. Linnaeus 1758 gull
Stratum 3
 Cathartiformes - Cathartidae
Cathartes aura Linnaeus 1758 turkey vulture
Stratum 2
 Galliformes - Phasianidae
"Meleagris gallopavo" = Meleagris gallopavo13, "Ardea sellardsi n. sp." = Meleagris gallopavo
"Meleagris gallopavo" = Meleagris gallopavo13 Linnaeus 1758 wild turkey
"Ardea sellardsi n. sp." = Meleagris gallopavo Linnaeus 1758 wild turkey
Stratum 3
 Anseriformes - Anatidae
Querquedula floridiana n. sp. Shufeldt 1917 duck
Stratum 2
 Strigiformes - Tytonidae
"Tyto pratincola" = Tyto alba pratincola
"Tyto pratincola" = Tyto alba pratincola Bonaparte 1838 barn owl
Stratum 3
 Pelecaniformes - Ardeidae
? Ardeidae ? indet. Leach 1820 heron
"comes nearest to Herodias egretta"
"Larus vero n. sp." = Nyctanassa violacea Linnaeus 1758 yellow-crowned night heron
Stratum 3
? Ardea ? sp. Linnaeus 1758 heron
Ardea? (sp.?); Stratum 3
"Herodias egretta" = Ardea alba egretta Gmelin 1789 great egret
Ardea herodias Linnaeus 1758 great blue heron
Stratum 3
 Ciconiiformes - Ciconiidae
"Jabiru weillsi n. sp." = Jabiru mycteria10, Mycteria ? americana
"Jabiru weillsi n. sp." = Jabiru mycteria10 Lichtenstein 1819 jabiru
Mycteria ? americana Linnaeus 1758 wood stork
Stratum 3
 Suliformes - Phalacrocoracidae
Phalacrocorax auritus13 Lesson 1831 double-crested cormorant
 Crocodylia - Alligatoridae
Alligator mississippiensis6 Daudin 1801 American alligator
 Squamata - Colubridae
Drymarchon corais6 Boie 1827 cribo
Gilmore 1938 (14699): (Drymarchon cf. corais couperi) Florida Geol. Surv. No. V 1630, two thoracic vertebrae; V 1546, three thoracic vertebrae; V 2163, two vertebrae
Farancia abacura6 Holbrook 1836 colubrid snake
MATERIAL LOST. Gilmore 1938 (14699): "The failure to find among the Florida serpent materials any vertebrae which can be referred to the genus Farancia leads me to question the authenticity of Hay’s reference of a single articular bone, no longer available, to F. abacura."
 Squamata - Crotalidae
Crotalus adamanteus6 Palisot de Beauvois 1799 eastern diamondback rattlesnake
Gilmore 1938 (14699): USNM 11333, 46 thoracic vertebrae; Fla. Geol Surv. No. V 2411 and 2412, each 2 vertebrae; V 2414, 2399, 1702, 191, 1712, 1765 single vertebrae each
 Primates - Hominidae
Homo sapiens11 Linnaeus 1758 human
 Rodentia - Cricetidae
Oryzomys ? palustris6 Harlan 1837 marsh rice rat
Reithrodontomys humulis12 Audubon and Bachman 1841 eastern harvest mouse
Sigmodon hispidus6 Say and Ord 1825 hispid cotton rat
Neotoma floridana6 Ord 1818 eastern woodrat
Neofiber alleni6 True 1884 round-tailed muskrat
 Lagomorpha - Leporidae
Sylvilagus palustris6 Bachman 1837 marsh rabbit
Stratum 3
 Lipotyphla - Talpidae
Scalopus aquaticus6 Linnaeus 1758 eastern mole
subsp. = australis
 Perissodactyla - Tapiridae
"Tapirus veroensis n. sp." = Tapirus (Helicotapirus) veroensis8
"Tapirus veroensis n. sp." = Tapirus (Helicotapirus) veroensis8 Sellards 1918 tapir
 Perissodactyla - Equidae
Equus sp.1 Linnaeus 1758 horse
 Carnivora - Ursidae
Ursus americanus1 Pallas 1780 black bear
 Carnivora - Procyonidae
Procyon lotor6 Linnaeus 1758 raccoon
 Carnivora - Mustelidae
Lontra canadensis1 Schreber 1776 North American river otter
 Carnivora - Canidae
"Vulpes palmaria n. sp." = Vulpes vulpes6, Canis sp.6, "Canis ayersi n. sp." = Canis dirus10, Canis latrans1
"Vulpes palmaria n. sp." = Vulpes vulpes6 Linnaeus 1758 red fox
Canis sp.6 Linnaeus 1758 canine
Stratum 3
"Canis ayersi n. sp." = Canis dirus10 Leidy 1858 dire wolf
Canis latrans1 Say 1823 coyote
 Carnivora - Felidae
Lynx rufus6 Schreber 1777 bobcat
subsp. = floridianus
 Cingulata - Dasypodidae
Dasypus sp.6 Linnaeus 1758 armadillo
Stratum 3
 Xenarthra - Pampatheriidae
Holmesina septentrionalis1 Leidy 1889 edentate
 Proboscidea - Mammutidae
Mammut americanum6 Kerr 1792 American mastodon
Stratum 3
 Proboscidea - Elephantidae
Mammuthus columbi1 Falconer 1857 Columbian mammoth
 Ungulata - Tayassuidae
Mylohyus fossilis1 Leidy 1860 peccary
Strata 2 and 3
 Ungulata - Bovidae
Bison sp.6 Hamilton-Smith 1827 bison
Stratum 3
 Ungulata - Cervidae
Odocoileus virginianus2 Zimmermann 1780 white-tailed deer
Odocoileus sellardsiae n. sp.6 Hay 1917 New World deer
 Didelphimorphia - Didelphidae
Didelphis virginiana6 Kerr 1792 Virginia opossum
 Scleractinia - Faviidae
Solenastrea hyades9 Dana 1846 stony coral
 Scleractinia - Oculinidae
Oculina robusta11 Pourtales 1871 stony coral
 Pinales - Pinaceae
Pinus sp.3 Linnaeus 1753 pine
 Pinales - Taxodiaceae
Taxodium distichum3 Richard 1810 bald cypress
 Arales - Arecidae
 Rhamnales - Rosidae
Vitis sp.3 Linnaeus grapevine
Zizyphus sp.3 Linnaeus
 Theales - Dilleniidae
 Polygonales - Caryophyllidae
Polygonum sp.3 Linnaeus
 Juglandales - Hamamelidae
 Magnoliales - Magnoliaceae
 Dipsacales - Caprifoliaceae
 Sapindales - Aceraceae
 Fagales - Fagaceae
Merisca aequistriata
"Tellina lintea" = Merisca aequistriata11
"Tellina lintea" = Merisca aequistriata11 Say 1824