Inglis IA (Pleistocene of the United States)

Also known as Inglis 1A; UF locality CI001

Where: Citrus County, Florida (29.0° N, 82.7° W: paleocoordinates 29.0° N, 82.5° W)

• coordinate stated in text

• small collection-level geographic resolution

When: Calabrian (1.8 - 0.8 Ma)

• latest Blancan, ca. 1.6-1.9 Ma

Environment/lithology: terrestrial; lithology not reported

Size classes: macrofossils, mesofossils

Primary reference: S. D. Webb and K. T. Wilkins. 1984. Historical Biogeography of Florida Pleistocene Mammals. In H. H. Genoways and M. R. Dawson (eds.), Carnegie Museum of Natural History Special Publication 8:370-383 [J. Alroy/J. Alroy/M. Uhen]more details

Purpose of describing collection: general faunal/floral analysis

PaleoDB collection 20384: authorized by John Alroy, entered by John Alroy on 18.02.1993, edited by Mark Uhen, Richard Hulbert, Jonathan Marcot, Evangelos Vlachos and Bethany Allen

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

• said to be "earliest Irvingtonian"

•"Tremarctos floridanus" is not actually present: Emslie 1995

•"Conepatus leuconotus" is omitted by Morgan and Hulbert 1995 and Ruez 2001, and was listed as "a mistake" by Webb 1974a according to Martin 1978

 Salientia - Pelobatidae
"Scaphiopus holbrooki" = Scaphiopus (Scaphiopus) holbrooki11
"Scaphiopus holbrooki" = Scaphiopus (Scaphiopus) holbrooki11 Harlan 1835 Eastern spadefoot toad
 Salientia - Ranidae
Rana catesbeiana11 Shaw 1802 American bullfrog
 Salientia - Microhylidae
Gastrophryne carolinensis11 Holbrook 1835 Eastern narrowmouth toad
 Salientia - Hylidae
Hyla cinerea11 Schneider 1799 American green tree frog
 Salientia - Bufonidae
Bufo defensor n. sp.11
Bufo defensor n. sp.11 Meylan 2001 toad
 Testudines - Pantestudinidae
Gopherus polyphemus5 Daudin 1802 Florida gopher tortoise
The Inglis 1A sample includes 17 NUCH (UF 211285-211298, 211323) (Fig. 4), 7 right and 9 left EPI (UF 211324- 211339) (Fig. 6), 6 right and 8 left XIPH (UF 211340- 211350, 211401-211403), 4 right and 6 left HYO (UF 211405-211414), 1 right and 4 left HYPO (UF 211415- 211419), and numerous other shell fragments. No skull material was associated with the sample. We assume a MNI of 17, based on the number of NUCH bones.
 Charadriiformes - Scolopacidae
Gallinago gallinago3 Linnaeus 1758 common snipe
Scolopax hutchensi3 Emslie 1998 snipe
 Cathartiformes - Cathartidae
cf. Gymnogyps sp.3 Lesson 1842 New World vulture
single specimen too worn and fragmentary for positive identification
Coragyps atratus3 Bechstein 1793 black vulture
 Falconiformes - Falconidae
Falco sparverius3 Linnaeus 1758 American kestrel
Falco columbarius3 Linnaeus 1758 merlin
 Strigiformes - Strigidae
Asio sp.3 Brisson 1760 true owl
"Otus asio" = Megascops asio3 Linnaeus 1758 eastern screech-owl
Bubo virginianus3 Gmelin 1788 great horned owl
Glaucidium sp.3 Boie 1826 pygmy-owl
smaller species than G. explorator
Glaucidium explorator3 Emslie 1998 pygmy-owl
Strix varia3 Barton 1799 barred owl
"Speotyto cunicularia" = Athene cunicularia3 Molina 1782 burrowing owl
 Strigiformes - Tytonidae
Tyto alba3 Scopoli 1769 barn owl
 Columbiformes - Columbidae
Columba sp.3 Linnaeus 1758 dove
Zenaida macroura3 Linnaeus 1758 mourning dove
 Cuculiformes - Cuculidae
Coccyzus americanus3 Linnaeus 1758 yellow-billed cuckoo
 Piciformes - Picidae
Dryocopus sp.3 Boie 1826 woodpecker
Melanerpes sp.3 Swainson 1832 woodpecker
specimens compare well to M. carolinus and M. erythrocephalus
Colaptes auratus3 Linnaeus 1758 northern flicker
Picoides cf. villosus3 Linnaeus 1766 hairy woodpecker
 Passeriformes - Icteridae
Agelaius phoeniceus3 Linnaeus 1766 red-winged blackbird
Euphagus sp.3 Cassin 1866 blackbird
Euphagus cyanocephalus3 Wagler 1829 Brewer's blackbird
Molothrus ater3 Boddaert 1783 brown-headed cowbird
Sturnella magna3 Linnaeus 1758 eastern meadowlark
 Passeriformes - Corvidae
Aphelocoma coerulescens3 Bosc 1795 Florida scrub jay
Corvus ossifragus3 Wilson 1812 fish crow
Cyanocitta cristata3 Linnaeus 1758 blue jay
 Passeriformes - Parulidae
"Vermivora cf. celata" = Oreothlypis celata3
"Vermivora cf. celata" = Oreothlypis celata3 Say 1823 orange-crowned warbler
 Passeriformes - Passerellidae
Junco cf. hyemalis3 Linnaeus 1758 dark-eyed junco
Zonotrichia sp.3 Swainson 1832 sparrow
Zonotrichia cf. leucophrys3 Forster 1772 white-crowned sparrow
Passerculus sandwichensis3 Gmelin 1789 savannah sparrow
Ammodramus maritimus3 new world sparrow
Melospiza melodia3 Wilson 1810 song sparrow
 Passeriformes - Turdidae
Turdus sp.3 Linnaeus 1758 true thrush
larger than T. migratorius; similar in size to T. rufiventris and T. rufopalliatus, but too fragmentary for specific identification
cf. Hylocichla mustelina3 thrush
specimens slightly larger and more robust than modern specimens of H. mustelina
 Passeriformes - Cardinalidae
Cardinalis cardinalis3 Linnaeus 1758 northern cardinal
 Gruiformes - Phorusrhacidae
Titanis walleri3 Brodkorb 1963 terror bird
 Gruiformes - Gruidae
Grus americana3 Linnaeus 1758 Whooping crane
earliest fossil record of species
 Gruiformes - Rallidae
Porzana carolina3 Linnaeus 1758 sora
Rallus "sp. B"3 Linnaeus 1758 rail
intermediate in size between R. longirostris and R. limicola
Rallus cf. longirostris3 Boddaert 1783 mangrove rail
specimens more similar to this species than to the morphologically similar Rallus elegans
 Gaviiformes - Gaviidae
Gavia pacifica3 Lawrence 1858 Pacific loon
 Podicipediformes - Podicipedidae
Tachybaptus dominicus3 Linnaeus 1766 least grebe
Podilymbus podiceps3 Linnaeus 1758 pied-billed grebe
Podiceps sp.3 Latham 1787 grebe
According to Emslie (1998), larger and more robust humerus and ulna than Podiceps auritus
 Pelecaniformes - Ardeidae
Ixobrychus exilis3 Gmelin 1789 least bittern
Ardea sp.3 Linnaeus 1758 heron
single fragmentary specimen, but differs from Ardea herodias and may represent an extinct species
Botaurus lentiginosus3 Rackett 1813 American bittern
 Pelecaniformes - Threskiornithidae
Eudocimus albus3 Linnaeus 1758 White ibis
or could be Eudocimus ruber
 Galliformes - Phasianidae
Meleagris anza3 turkey
or could be Meleagrais leopoldi
 Galliformes - Odontophoridae
Colinus virginianus3 Linnaeus 1758 northern bobwhite
1048 specimens in UF collection
 Anseriformes - Anatidae
Aix sponsa3 Linnaeus 1758 wood duck
Aythya sp.3 Boie 1822 pochard
Anas sp.3 Linnaeus 1758 dabbling duck
two sizes represented
Anas platyrhynchos3 Linnaeus 1758 mallard
Anas crecca3 Linnaeus 1758 Eurasian teal
or could be Anas discors
Anabernicula gracilenta3 Ross 1935 dabbling duck
 Accipitriformes - Accipitridae
Accipiter cooperii3 Bonaparte 1828 Cooper's hawk
Buteo sp.3 de Lacep├Ęde 1799 hawk
Buteogallus urubitinga3 Gmelin 1788 great black-hawk
Neophrontops slaughteri3 Feduccia 1974 hawk
Aquila bivia n. sp.4 Emslie and Czaplewski 1999 golden eagle
 Squamata - Colubridae
Regina intermedia6 Meylan 1982 crayfish snake
Nerodia erythrogaster6 Clark 1903 plain-bellied water snake
Nerodia floridana6 Goff 1936 Florida green watersnake
 Rodentia - Cricetidae
Reithrodontomys wetmorei16 Hibbard 1952 harvest mouse
Sigmodon curtisi Gidley 1922 cotton rat
Neotoma sp. Say and Ord 1825 pack rat
said to be new
Ondatra cf. idahoensis Wilson 1933 muskrat
Peromyscus sarmocophinus16 Ruez 2001 deer mouse
Peromyscus ? polionotus16 Wagner 1843 oldfield mouse
 Rodentia - Sciuridae
Sciurus carolinensis14 Gmelin 1788 eastern gray squirrel
Glaucomys sp.14 Thomas 1908 flying squirrel
said to be a new species; "G. volans"
 Rodentia - Geomyidae
Orthogeomys propinetis1 Wilkins 1984 pocket gopher
 Rodentia - Caviidae
Neochoerus aesopi1 Leidy 1853 caviomorph
 Rodentia - Erethizontidae
Erethizon kleini n. sp. Frazier 1981 North American porcupine
see Frazier 1981
 Lagomorpha - Leporidae
Sylvilagus webbi n. sp.18 White 1991 cottontail rabbit
Lepus sp.14 Linnaeus 1758 hare
 Lipotyphla - Talpidae
Scalopus aquaticus Linnaeus 1758 eastern mole
 Perissodactyla - Tapiridae
Tapirus sp. Brisson 1762 tapir
 Perissodactyla - Equidae
Equus leidyi8 Hay 1913 horse
 Tribosphenida - Soricidae
Blarina carolinensis Bachman 1837 southern short-tailed shrew
confirmed by Jones et al. 1984
Cryptotis parva Say 1823 North American least shrew
 Chiroptera - Phyllostomidae
Desmodus archaeodaptes12 Morgan et al. 1988 vampire bat
 Chiroptera - Vespertilionidae
Lasiurus sp.12 Gray 1831 hairy-tailed bat
a bat
Myotis sp. Kaup 1829 vesper bat
a bat
Plecotus sp.12 Geoffroy 1818 vesper bat
a bat
Antrozous sp.12 Allen 1862 pallid bat
a bat
Pipistrellus subflavus Cuvier 1832 eastern pipistrelle bat
a bat
Eptesicus sp.12 Rafinesque 1820 house bat
a bat
 Carnivora - Ursidae
Arctodus pristinus Leidy 1854 bear
 Carnivora - Mephitidae
Spilogale sp.13 Gray 1865 skunk
 Carnivora - Procyonidae
Procyon sp. Storr 1780 raccoon
said to be new
 Carnivora - Mustelidae
Trigonictis macrodon Cope 1868 mustelid carnivore
 Carnivora - Canidae
Canis edwardii Gazin 1942 canine
reported by both Webb 1974a and Nowak 1979 as "C. rufus"; by Martin 1974a as "C. lupus"; but by Berta 1981 as C. edwardii
Theriodictis ? floridanus17 Tedford et al. 2009 canine
Urocyon citrinus n. sp.17 Tedford et al. 2009 gray fox
said to be "U. cinereoargenteus" by Berta 1995 but not by Morgan and Hulbert 1995 or Ruez 2001
 Carnivora - Felidae
Smilodon gracilis Cope 1880 saber-toothed cat
described by Webb 1974b; includes some material identified as "Panthera" by some authors according to Seymour 1993
Homotherium sp.13 Fabrini 1890 cat
said to be new; "H. serum"
Felinae indet.1 Trouessart 1885 cat
Lynx sp.13 Kerr 1792 lynx
Miracinonyx cf. inexpectatus1 Cope 1895 American cheetah
 Carnivora - Hyaenidae
Chasmaporthetes ossifragus Hay 1921 hyaena
described by Berta 1981
 Cingulata - Dasypodidae
Dasypus bellus Simpson 1929 beautiful armadillo
 Xenarthra - Megalonychidae
Megalonyx leptostomus Cope 1893 edentate
 Xenarthra - Megatheriidae
Eremotherium eomigrans2 De Iuliis and Cartelle 1999 edentate
 Xenarthra - Mylodontidae
Paramylodon harlani9 Owen 1840 Harlan's ground sloth
 Xenarthra - Pampatheriidae
Holmesina floridanus15 Robertson 1976 edentate
 Xenarthra - Glyptodontidae
"Glyptotherium arizonae" = Glyptotherium texanum
"Glyptotherium arizonae" = Glyptotherium texanum Osborn 1903 glyptodon
 Proboscidea - Mammutidae
Mammut americanum Kerr 1792 American mastodon
 Ungulata - Tayassuidae
Platygonus vetus13 Leidy 1882 peccary
 Ungulata - Camelidae
Hemiauchenia gracilis10 Meachen 2005 camel
said to be new
 Ungulata - Bovidae
Bovidae indet.13 Gray 1821 antelope
 Ungulata - Cervidae
Odocoileus virginianus Zimmermann 1780 white-tailed deer
 Ungulata - Antilocapridae
Capromeryx arizonensis Skinner 1942 pronghorn