Mishash Level 4a (Cretaceous to of Israel)

Also known as Mishash Phosphate Member 4a

Where: Israel (30.8° N, 35.0° E: paleocoordinates 14.5° N, 30.0° E)

• coordinate estimated from map

• outcrop-level geographic resolution

When: Mishash Formation, Campanian to Campanian (83.6 - 66.0 Ma)

• layer 4 actually represents two successive levels which seem to form a single layer at some outcrops.

Environment/lithology: marine; phosphorite and phosphorite

• 80-100 cm thick, overlying a more finely laminated phosphate layer, but both represent short periods of high-energy conditions and the beninning of relative sea-level rise

Size class: mesofossils

Primary reference: P. Christiansen and N. Bonde. 2002. A new species of gigantic mosasaur from the Late Cretaceous of Israel. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 22(3):629-644 [J. Alroy/E. Leckey/E. Leckey]more details

Purpose of describing collection: taxonomic analysis

PaleoDB collection 35443: authorized by John Alroy, entered by Erin Leckey on 15.12.2003

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

 Squaliformes -
Centrosqualus sp. Signeux 1950 elasmobranch
Cretascymnus sp. Cappetta 1980 elasmobranch
cf. Cretascymnus sp. Cappetta 1980 elasmobranch
 Squatiniformes - Squatinidae
Squatina hassei Leriche 1929 angel shark
 Plagiostomi - Squalidae
Squalus sp. Linnaeus 1758 dogfish shark
 Rajiformes - Rhinobatidae
Rhinobatos "sp. 1" Link 1790 guitarfish
Rhinobatos "sp. 2" Link 1790 guitarfish
 Rajiformes -
Rhinobatoidei sp. n. gen. Fowler 1941 guitarfish
nomen nudum
 Sclerorhynchiformes - Sclerorhynchidae
Sclerorhynchus sp. Woodward 1889 elasmobranch
Ganopristis leptodon Arambourg 1935 elasmobranch
 Myliobatiformes - Rhombodontidae
Rhombodus binkhorsti Dames 1881 stingray
 Lamniformes - Anacoracidae
Pseudocorax aff. affinis Agassiz 1843 mackerel shark
Squalicorax sp. Whitley 1939 crow shark
Squalicorax pristodontus Agassiz 1843 crow shark
 Lamniformes - Mitsukurinidae
Scapanorhynchus cf. raphiodon Agassiz 1843 goblin shark
Anomotodon plicatus Arambourg 1952 goblin shark
 Lamniformes - Cretoxyrhinidae
Cretolamna caraibaea mackerel shark
Cretolamna biauriculata Wanner 1902 mackerel shark
C. biauriculata maroccana
Cretolamna appendiculata Agassiz 1843 mackerel shark
 Carchariniformes - Scyliorhinidae
Pteroscyllium "sp. 1" Cappetta 1980 cat shark
 Carchariniformes - Triakidae
Triakidae "indet. 1" Gray 1851 hound shark
Triakidae "indet. 2" Gray 1851 hound shark
 Heterodontiformes - Heterodontidae
Heterodontus sp. de Blainville 1816 bullhead shark
  - Scyllidae
Scyliorhinus sp. Blainville 1816 shark
 Synechodontiformes - Paraorthacodontidae
"Paraorthacodus aff. nerviensis" = Paraorthacodus conicus
"Paraorthacodus aff. nerviensis" = Paraorthacodus conicus Davis 1890 elasmobranch
 Pristiophoriformes - Pristiophoridae
Pristiophorus sp. Bleeker 1859 saw shark
 Hexanchiformes - Hexanchidae
Hexanchus microdon sixgill shark