Love Bone Bed (Miocene of the United States)

Where: Alachua County, Florida (29.6° N, 82.5° W: paleocoordinates 29.8° N, 80.0° W)

• coordinate stated in text

When: Alachua Formation, Late/Upper Clarendonian (13.6 - 10.3 Ma)

• bed-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: marginal marine; lithology not reported

Size class: macrofossils

Reposited in the FLMNH

Collection methods: quarrying,

• "approximately 15,000 specimens of identifiable, medium- to large-sized mammals": MacFadden and Hulbert 1990

Primary reference: S. D. Webb, B. J. MacFadden, and J. A. Baskin. 1981. Geology and paleontology of the Love Bone Bed from the Late Miocene of Florida. American Journal of Science 281:513-544 [J. Alroy/J. Alroy/M. Uhen]more details

Purpose of describing collection: general faunal/floral analysis

PaleoDB collection 18554: authorized by John Alroy, entered by John Alroy on 18.02.1993, edited by John Hunter, Mark Uhen, Richard Hulbert, Jonathan Marcot, Catalina Pimiento, Patricia Holroyd, Philip Mannion and Evangelos Vlachos

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

• "Prosthennops cf. serus" apparently not present: Wright 1983
"Clarendonian peccary" sp.26
said to be a new species not found elsewhere; species "D" and "E" of Wright 1983; see also Wright 1998
 Odontaspidida - Carcharodontidae
"Isurus hastalis" = Cosmopolitodus hastalis20
"Isurus hastalis" = Cosmopolitodus hastalis20 Agassiz 1843 elasmobranch
 Rhinopristiformes - Pristidae
Pristis sp.20 Linck 1790 sawfish
 Lamniformes - Otodontidae
"Carcharodon megalodon" = Otodus megalodon20
"Carcharodon megalodon" = Otodus megalodon20 Agassiz 1843 megalodon
 Lamniformes - Lamnidae
Carcharodon sp. Smith 1838 white shark
 Lamniformes - Odontaspididae
"Odontaspis taurus" = Carcharias taurus
"Odontaspis taurus" = Carcharias taurus Rafinesque 1810 sand shark
 Carchariniformes - Carcharhinidae
Negaprion brevirostris Poey 1868 lemon shark
"Physogaleus contortus" = Galeocerdo contortus20 Gibbes 1848 tiger shark
Galeocerdo cuvieri Peron and LeSueur 1822 tiger shark
Carcharhinus sp.20 de Blainville 1816 requiem shark
Carcharhinus leucas Valenciennes 1839 requiem shark
Rhizoprionodon sp.20 Whitley 1929 sharpnose shark
 Carchariniformes - Hemigaleidae
"Hemipristis serra" = Hemipristis heteropleurus20
"Hemipristis serra" = Hemipristis heteropleurus20 Agassiz 1844 ground shark
 Elopiformes - Megalopidae
 Acanthomorphata - Centropomidae
Centropomus sp. Lacépède 1802
 Perciformes - Sparidae
Lagodon cf. rhomboides Linnaeus 1766 perch-like fish
 Acanthomorphata - Sciaenidae
Pogonias cf. cromis Cope 1869 black drum
 Labriformes - Labridae
Labridae indet. Cuvier 1816
 Tetraodontiformes - Diodontidae
Chilomycterus sp. Bribon 1846
 Siluriformes - Ictaluridae
 Amiiformes - Amiidae
Amia cf. calva Linnaeus 1766 bowfin
 Lepisosteiformes - Lepisosteidae
 Salientia - Ranidae
Ranidae indet. Rafinesque 1814 frog
 Caudata - Urodela
Siren sp. Linnaeus 1766 siren
 Testudines - Trionychidae
Apalone amorense n. sp.22 Valdes et al. 2017 softshell turtle
 Testudines - Kinosternoidea
Kinosternon notolophus n. sp.13 Bourque 2015 mud turtle
"cf. Kinosternon n. sp."
 Testudines - Panchelydridae
Chelydra sp.12 Schweigger 1812 Snapping turtle
 Testudines - Pantestudinidae
Geochelone sp. Fitzinger 1835 turtle
 Testudines - Panemydidae
Terrapene sp. Merrem 1820 box turtle
said to be new
Pseudemys williamsi12 Rose and Weaver 1966 cooter
"Chrysemys caelata" = Pseudemys caelata17 Hay 1908 turtle
Deirochelys carri Jackson 1978 chicken turtle
 Charadriiformes -
Charadrii indet. Huxley 1867 shorebird
 Cathartiformes - Cathartidae
Pliogyps charon n. sp.10, "Vulturidae indet." = Cathartidae
Pliogyps charon n. sp.10 Becker 1986 New World vulture
"Vulturidae indet." = Cathartidae Lafresnaye 1839 vulture
 Ornithurae -
Passeriformes indet. Linnaeus 1758 perching bird
 Gruiformes - Gruidae
Gruidae indet. Vigors 1825 crane
 Gruiformes - Rallidae
Rallinae indet. Vigors 1825 rail
Fulicinae indet. Nitzsch 1820 rail
 Gruiformes - Aramidae
Aramidae indet. Bonaparte 1854 limpkin
 Podicipediformes - Podicipedidae
Podicipedidae indet. Bonaparte 1831 grebe
 Pelecaniformes - Ardeidae
Ardeola sp.8 Boie 1822 pond heron
Egretta sp.8 Forster 1817 egret
Ardea sp.8 Linnaeus 1758 heron
 Pelecaniformes - Threskiornithidae
Threskiornithinae indet. Richmond 1917 ibis
 Ciconiiformes - Ciconiidae
Ciconiidae indet. Sundevall 1836 stork
 Anseriformes - Anatidae
Anserinae indet. Vigors 1825 goose
Anatinae indet. Vigors 1825 duck
 Phoenicopteriformes - Phoenicopteridae
Phoenicopteridae indet. Bonaparte 1838 flamingo
 Accipitriformes - Accipitridae
Accipitridae indet. Viellot 1816 hawk
 Accipitriformes - Pandionidae
Pandionidae indet. Sclater and Salvin 1873 osprey
Pandion lovensis n. sp.9 Becker 1985 osprey
 Suliformes - Phalacrocoracidae
Phalacrocoracidae indet. Reichenbach 1850 cormorant
 Suliformes - Anhingidae
Anhinga grandis11 Martin and Mengel 1975 darter
 Crocodylia -
"Gavialosuchus cf. americanus" = Thecachampsa sericodon
"Gavialosuchus cf. americanus" = Thecachampsa sericodon Cope 1867 crocodilian
UF 289203, 289202, 289201
 Crocodylia - Alligatoridae
Alligator sp.25 Daudin 1809 alligator
 Squamata - Colubridae
cf. Elaphe sp. Wagler 1833 colubrid snake
cf. Lampropeltis getulus Linnaeus 1766 kingsnake
Xenodontinae indet. Bonaparte 1845 colubrid snake
sp. 3 ("similar to Dryinoides Auffenberg")
cf. Heterodon sp. Latreille 1801 hog-nosed snake
sp. 1
cf. Thamnophis sp. Fitzinger 1843 garter snake
cf. Nerodia sp.2 Baird and Girard 1853 water snake
 Squamata - Crotalidae
"Crotalinae indet." = Crotalidae, cf. Sistrurus sp.
"Crotalinae indet." = Crotalidae Oppel 1811 pit viper
"Crotalus or Agkistrodon"
cf. Sistrurus sp. Garman 1883 pigmy rattlesnake
 Squamata - Typhlopidae
? Typhlops sp. Oppel 1811 blind snake
 Sirenia - Dugongidae
Metaxytherium sp. de Christol 1840 dugong
Metaxytherium floridanum14 Hay 1922 dugong
 Rodentia - Cricetidae
Abelmoschomys simpsoni n. sp.6 Baskin 1986 mouse
probably includes "Copemys sp." based on phylogenetic discussion
 Rodentia - Sciuridae
Sciuridae indet. Gray 1821 squirrel
 Rodentia - Castoridae
"Eucastor cf. planus" = Nothodipoides planus
"Eucastor cf. planus" = Nothodipoides planus Stirton 1935 beaver
 Rodentia - Mylagaulidae
Mylagaulus elassos n. sp.3 Baskin 1980 rodent
 Lagomorpha - Leporidae
 Lipotyphla - Talpidae
Talpidae indet. Fischer de Waldheim 1817 mole
 Perissodactyla - Rhinocerotidae
Teleoceras proterum19 Leidy 1885 rhinoceros
Aphelops malacorhinus Cope 1878 rhinoceros
 Perissodactyla - Tapiridae
Tapirus webbi15 Hulbert 2005 tapir
 Perissodactyla - Equidae
"Hippotherium plicatile" = Cormohipparion plicatile16 Leidy 1887 hipparionine horse
"Hippotherium ingenuum" = Cormohipparion ingenuum16 Leidy 1885 hipparionine horse
Pseudhipparion skinneri16 Webb and Hulbert 1986 hipparionine horse
Nannippus westoni16 Simpson 1930 hipparionine horse
Neohipparion trampasense16 Edwards 1982 hipparionine horse
Hipparion cf. tehonense16 Merriam 1916 hipparionine horse
Protohippus gidleyi16 Hulbert 1988 horse
Calippus elachistus16 Hulbert 1988 horse
Calippus cerasinus16 Hulbert 1988 horse
 Tribosphenida - Soricidae
Soricidae indet. Fischer 1814 shrew
 Chiroptera -
Microchiroptera indet. Dobson 1875 bat
 Carnivora - Ursidae
cf. Plithocyon sp.7 Ginsburg 1955 bear
 Carnivora - Procyonidae
Paranasua biradica n. sp.5 Baskin 1982 procyonid carnivore
Arctonasua floridana n. sp.5 Baskin 1982 procyonid carnivore
this record or the following one might include "Proturocyon cf. macdonaldi" (an unpublished name for a new genus and species present also at Black Hawk Ranch that never has been described)
 Carnivora - Barbourofelidae
Barbourofelis loveorum4 Baskin 1981 carnivoran
 Carnivora - Mustelidae
Hoplictis sp.21 Ginsburg 1961 ratel
Leptarctus webbi n. sp.7 Baskin 2005 mustelid carnivore
said to be new
? Plionictis sp. Matthew 1924 mustelid carnivore
Sthenictis cf. lacota Matthew and Gidley 1904 mustelid carnivore
 Carnivora - Canidae
? Leptocyon sp. Matthew 1918 canine
cf. Urocyon sp.7 Baird 1857 gray fox
Epicyon cf. saevus1 Leidy 1858 bone-crushing dog
Epicyon haydeni7 Leidy 1858 bone-crushing dog
 Carnivora - Felidae
Nimravides galiani n. sp.4 Baskin 1981 cat
 Proboscidea - Gomphotheriidae
Gomphotherium sp.18 Burmeister 1837 gomphothere
 Ungulata - Camelidae
Procamelus grandis19 Gregory 1939 camel
Aepycamelus major Leidy 1886 camel
Hemiauchenia minima Leidy 1886 camel
 Ungulata - Gelocidae
Pseudoceras skinneri24 Frick 1937 ruminant
 Ungulata - Palaeomerycidae
"Pediomeryx hamiltoni n. sp." = Yumaceras hamiltoni23
"Pediomeryx hamiltoni n. sp." = Yumaceras hamiltoni23 Webb 1983 ruminant
 Ungulata - Antilocapridae
Antilocaprinae indet. Gray 1866 pronghorn
 Cetacea -
Cetacea indet. Brisson 1762 whale