Sand Wash (Eocene of the United States)

Where: Moffat County, Colorado (40.6° N, 108.1° W: paleocoordinates 43.3° N, 97.0° W)

• coordinate based on political unit

When: Washakie Formation, Early/Lower Uintan (46.2 - 40.4 Ma)

• said to be early Uintan

Environment/lithology: terrestrial

Primary reference: R. K. Stucky, D. R. Prothero, W. G. Lohr and J. R. Snyder. 1996. Magnetic stratigraphy, sedimentology, and mammalian faunas of the early Uintan Washakie Formation, Sand Wash Basin, northwestern Colorado. In D. R. Prothero and R. J. Emry (eds.), The Terrestrial Eocene-Oligocene Transition in North America 40-51 [J. Alroy/J. Alroy/J. Alroy]more details

PaleoDB collection 16623: authorized by John Alroy, entered by John Alroy on 27.09.1993, edited by Jonathan Marcot

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

• replaces assorted Sand Wash lists of West and Dawson 1975
West and Dawson report specimen counts, but these are not valid estimates in light of the later CM collections
apparently from a restricted stratigraphic interval that is correlable with the lower Adobe Town Mbr. in the Washakie Basin
"Hemiacodon sp." is said to be "Washakius sp." of West and Dawson, which is from Lang Springs

"Viverravus sp." is probably the specimen from Lang Springs described by West and Dawson 1975

"Tillomys cf. senex": probably the specimen from Lang Springs described by West and Dawson 1975

true identity of numerous remaining brontotheres of both West and Dawson 1975 and Stucky et al. is completely unclear; "Tanyorhinus" species could be Dolichorhinus or something else, and "Manteoceras" species could be Metatelmatherium, Dolichorhinus, or Telmatherium; Mader 1989 added Metatelmatherium ultimum to the list, but this is omitted by Stucky et al.; similarly, "Sphenocoelus sp." is listed by Prothero and Schoch 1989 but ignored by both Mader and Stucky et al.
 Cypriniformes - Catostomidae
Catostomidae indet. carp-like fish
 Siluriformes - Ictaluridae
Astephus sp. Cope 1873 catfish
 Siluriformes - Siluridae
Rhineastes peltatus Cope 1872 catfish
 Amiiformes - Amiidae
Amia sp. Linnaeus 1766 bowfin
 Lepisosteiformes - Lepisosteidae
Lepisosteus sp. Agassiz 1843 gar
 Testudines - Baenidae
Baena arenosa Leidy 1870 turtle
 Testudines - Adocidae
"Baptemys wyomingensis" = Adocus wyomingensis
"Baptemys wyomingensis" = Adocus wyomingensis Leidy 1869 turtle
 Testudines - Pangeoemydidae
Echmatemys sp., "Echmatemys septaria" = Echmatemys stevensoniana
Echmatemys sp. Hay 1906 turtle
"Echmatemys septaria" = Echmatemys stevensoniana Leidy 1870 turtle
 Loricata -
Crocodylia indet.2 crocodilian
 Crocodylia - Alligatoridae
Allognathosuchus polyodon Cope 1873 crocodilian
originally entered as "Allognathosuchus polydon"
 Loricata -
Pristichampsus sp. Gervais 1853 crocodilian
 Squamata -
Saniwa sp. Leidy 1870 squamates
 Squamata - Anguidae
Anguidae indet. Gray 1825 squamates
 Ophidia -
 Primates - Microsyopidae
Microsyops sp. Leidy 1872 primate
Microsyops annectens Marsh 1872 primate
 Primates - Omomyidae
Omomyidae indet. Gazin 1958 tarsier
 Primates - Notharctidae
Notharctus robustior Leidy 1872 primate
 Cimolesta - Pantolestidae
Pantolestes natans Matthew 1909 eutherian
 Leptictida - Leptictidae
Leptictidae indet. Gill 1872 eutherian
 Rodentia - Sciuravidae
Sciuravus sp. Marsh 1871 rodent
 Rodentia - Eomyidae
Eomyidae indet.1 Winge 1887 rodent
 Rodentia - Ischyromyidae
Thisbemys sp. Wood 1959 rodent
Leptotomus sp. Matthew 1910 rodent
Leptotomus parvus1 Wood 1959 rodent
 Lipotyphla - Geolabididae
Centetodon sp. Marsh 1872 placental
 Perissodactyla - Brontotheriidae
Wickia brevirhinus n. gen. n. sp.3 Mihlbachler 2008 brontothere
CMNH 11380
Mesatirhinus junius3 Leidy 1872 brontothere
Sphenocoelus uintensis3 Osborn 1895 brontothere
Metarhinus sp. Osborn 1908 brontothere
genus is probably okay: Mader 1989
Telmatherium accola n. sp.3 Cook 1926 brontothere
Telmatherium advocata n. sp.3 Cook 1926 brontothere
DMNH 550
 Perissodactyla -
Isectolophus annectens Scott and Osborn 1887 odd-toed ungulate
 Perissodactyla - Hyracodontidae
Hyracodontidae indet. Cope 1879 odd-toed ungulate
large form, either Hyrachyus eximius or "Forstercooperia grandis"; replaces "H. modestus" of West and Dawson 1975; suggested to be Uintaceras by Holbrook and Lucas 1997
Triplopus implicatus Cope 1873 odd-toed ungulate
"Hyrachyus sp. (small)" of West and Dawson 1975
 Perissodactyla - Tapiridae
Dilophodon sp. Scott 1883 tapir
 Perissodactyla - Equidae
Epihippus gracilis1 Marsh 1871 horse
Orohippus sylvaticus Leidy 1870 horse
 Tribosphenida - Apternodontidae
Apternodontidae indet. Matthew 1910 placental
 Ferae - Viverravidae
Viverravus minutus Wortman 1901 placental
 Carnivora - Miacidae
"Uintacyon vorax" = Miacis vorax
"Uintacyon vorax" = Miacis vorax Leidy 1873 carnivoran
 Carnivora - Amphicyonidae
? Amphicyonidae indet. Haeckel 1886 bear-dog
 Ungulata - Hyopsodontidae
Hyopsodus paulus1 Leidy 1870 condylarth
 Ungulata - Uintatheriidae
Eobasileus cornutus4 Cope 1872 uintathere
 Ungulata - Homacodontidae
Hylomeryx sp. Peterson 1919 even-toed ungulate
replaces "Homacodon cf. vagans" of West and Dawson 1975
 Ungulata - Helohyidae
Helohyidae indet. Marshall 1877 even-toed ungulate
said to be new; replaces "Parahyus sp."; of West and Dawson 1975; described by Stucky 1998
 Ungulata - Oromerycidae
Oromeryx sp. Marsh 1894 even-toed ungulate
 Ungulata - Agriochoeridae
Agriochoeridae indet. Leidy 1869 agriochoerid
said to be new
Protoreodon sp. Scott and Osborn 1887 agriochoerid
 Acreodi - Mesonychidae
Mesonyx sp. Cope 1871 condylarth
 Theriiformes - Herpetotheriidae
"Copedelphys innominata" = Herpetotherium innominatum1, Herpetotherium knighti1
"Copedelphys innominata" = Herpetotherium innominatum1 Simpson 1928 marsupial
Herpetotherium knighti1 McGrew et al. 1959 marsupial