Pyramid Hill Sand Member grit zone (Oligocene of the United States)

Also known as LACMVP Loc. 1603, 1626, 1627; UCMP Loc. V-7032

Where: Kern County, California (35.5° N, 118.8° W: paleocoordinates 35.2° N, 109.8° W)

• coordinate based on nearby landmark

• local area-level geographic resolution

When: Pyramid Hill Member (Jewett Formation), Chattian (28.1 - 23.0 Ma)

• grit zone; age assignments vary; age for this collection originally listed as Chattian after Scheirer and Magoon, 2007 and Barboza et al., 2017; but Aquitanian after discussion in Shimada et al. 2014

• bed-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: marine; lithified, concretionary sandstone

• contains pebbles, rounded black chert grains, angular quartz clasts, and is referred to as the ""grit zone"" by some geologists

Size class: macrofossils

Preservation: concretion, permineralized, original phosphate

Reposited in the LACM

Collection methods: surface (in situ), chemical, mechanical,

• Pyramid Hill Local Fauna

Primary reference: F. M. Anderson. 1911. The Neocene deposits of Kern River, California, and the Temblor Basin. Proceedings of the Califonia Academy of Sciences 3:73-148 [M. Uhen/M. Uhen/M. Uhen]more details

Purpose of describing collection: taxonomic analysis

PaleoDB collection 11601: authorized by Mark Uhen, entered by Mark Uhen on 23.08.2001, edited by Patricia Holroyd and Austin Hendy

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

Bivalvia indet. Linnaeus 1758 clam
 Arcida - Arcidae
Arca montereyana Osmont 1904 ark
 Arcida - Glycymerididae
"Pectunculus branneri" = Glycymeris, "Pectunculus septentrionalis" = Glycymeris (Axinola) septentrionalis
"Pectunculus branneri" = Glycymeris clam
"Pectunculus septentrionalis" = Glycymeris (Axinola) septentrionalis Middendorf 1849 clam
 Pectinida - Pectinoidae
"Pecten aff. estrellanus" = Nodipecten estrellanus Conrad 1856 scallop
Pecten sespeensis Arnold 1906 scallop
"Pecten andersoni" = Aequipecten andersoni Arnold 1906 scallop
"Pecten magnolia" = Pecten (Lyropecten) magnolia Conrad 1857 scallop
Pecten perrini Arnold 1906 scallop
Pecten bowersi Arnold 1906 scallop
 Ostreida - Gryphaeidae
"Ostrea eldridgei" = Pycnodonte (Crenostrea) eldridgei
"Ostrea eldridgei" = Pycnodonte (Crenostrea) eldridgei Arnold 1907 oyster
 Ostreida - Ostreidae
"Ostrea aff. titan" = Crassostrea titan
"Ostrea aff. titan" = Crassostrea titan Conrad 1853 oyster
 Ostreida - Pinnidae
 Mytilida - Mytilidae
Mytilus sp., "Mytilus mathewsoni" = Crenomytilus mathewsoni
Mytilus sp. Linnaeus 1758 mussel
"Mytilus mathewsoni" = Crenomytilus mathewsoni Gabb 1866 mussel
 Cardiida - Corbiculidae
Cyrena dumblei Anderson 1905 clam
 Cardiida - Mactridae
"Mactra cf. albaria" = Mactromeris albaria
"Mactra cf. albaria" = Mactromeris albaria Conrad 1848 clam
 Cardiida - Veneridae
"Venus temblorensis" = Chione (Chionopsis) temblorensis Anderson 1905 venus clam
"Dosinia whitneyi" = Dosinia (Dosinia) whitneyi Gabb 1866 venus clam
Dosinia conradi Gabb 1866 venus clam
Tivela inezana6 Conrad 1849 venus clam
"Venus pertenuis" = Clementia (Egesta) pertenuis Gabb 1864 venus clam
 Cardiida - Tellinidae
Tellina sp. Linnaeus 1758 tellin clam
"Tellina ocoyana" = Tellina (Olcesia) ocoyana Conrad 1855 tellin clam
 Cardiida - Cardiidae
"Cardium vaqueroense" = Trachycardium (Trachycardium) vaquerosensis Arnold 1908 cockle
 Solenida - Solenidae
Solen sp. Linnaeus 1758 clam
 Pholadomyida - Pholadomyidae
Homomya sp. Agassiz 1843 clam
 Lucinida - Lucinidae
 Protobranchia - Yoldiidae
Yoldia aff. cooperii3 Gabb 1865 clam
Gastropoda indet. Cuvier 1797 snail
 Ptenoglossa - Epitoniidae
"Epitonium cf. rugiferum" = Opalia (Opalia) rugiferum
"Epitonium cf. rugiferum" = Opalia (Opalia) rugiferum Dall 1909 wentletrap
 Neogastropoda - Buccinidae
Agasoma gravidum Gabb 1866 true whelk
 Neogastropoda - Muricidae
Purpura lima Martyn 1784 murex snail
 Neogastropoda - Conidae
Conus owenana cone shell
 Naticoidea - Naticidae
"Neverita callosa" = Polinices (Neverita) reclusianus callosa Gabb 1866 moon snail
 Calyptraeoidea - Calyptraeidae
Crepidula princeps Conrad 1855 slipper shell
Scaphopoda indet. Bronn 1862 tusk shell
 Dentaliida - Dentaliidae
Dentalium sp. Linnaeus 1758 tusk shell
 Squatiniformes - Squatinidae
Squatina cf. lerichei5 Jordan and Beal 1910 angel shark
 Odontaspidida - Alopiidae
Alopias cf. exigua5 thresher shark
Alopias cf. vulpinus5 Bonnaterre 1788 thresher shark
Alopias latidens5 Leriche 1909 thresher shark
 Odontaspidida - Carcharodontidae
"Isurus hastalis" = Cosmopolitodus hastalis5
"Isurus hastalis" = Cosmopolitodus hastalis5 Agassiz 1843 elasmobranch
 Plagiostomi - Squalidae
Squalus cf. serriculus5 Jordan and Hanibal 1923 dogfish shark
 Rajiformes - Rhinobatidae
 Myliobatiformes - Myliobatidae
 Echinorhiniformes - Echinorhinidae
Echinorhinus blakei5 Agassiz 1856 shark
 Lamniformes - Cetorhinidae
Cetorhinus sp.5 de Blainville 1816 basking shark
 Lamniformes - Otodontidae
"Carcharodon angustidens" = Otodus (Carcharocles) angustidens5
"Carcharodon angustidens" = Otodus (Carcharocles) angustidens5 Agassiz 1843 mackerel shark
 Lamniformes - Lamnidae
Isurus benedini5 mako shark
Isurus aus5 mako shark
Isurus bus5 mako shark
 Lamniformes - Megachasmidae
Megachasma applegatei n. sp.7 Shimada et al. 2014 mackerel shark
from LACM 1626
 Lamniformes - Odontaspididae
Odontaspis ferox5 Risso 1826 sand tiger shark
 Carchariniformes - Carcharhinidae
Galeocerdo medius5 tiger shark
Carcharhinus sp.5 de Blainville 1816 requiem shark
 Carchariniformes - Sphyrnidae
Sphyrna aus5 hammerhead shark
Sphyrna bus5 hammerhead shark
 Carchariniformes - Triakidae
Galeorhinus cf. latus5 school shark
 Heterodontiformes - Heterodontidae
Heterodontus sp.5 de Blainville 1816 bullhead shark
  - Scyllidae
"Cephaloscyllium sp." = Scyliorhinus5
"Cephaloscyllium sp." = Scyliorhinus5 Blainville 1816 shark
 Hexanchiformes - Hexanchidae
Hexanchus aus5 sixgill shark
Hexanchus bus5 sixgill shark
 Acanthomorphata - Embiotocidae
 Pleuronectiformes - Bothidae
Bothidae indet.5 flatfish
 Pleuronectiformes - Pleuronectidae
 Perciformes - Scorpaenidae
? Scorpaenidae indet.5 Risso 1827 perch-like fish
 Acanthomorphata - Sciaenidae
Sciaenidae indet.5 Cuvier 1828
 Gadiformes - Gadidae
Gadidae indet.5 Rafinesque 1810
 Testudines - Dermochelyidae
Psephophorus cf. calvertensis5 Palmer 1909 leatherback
 Testudines - Cheloniidae
Chelonia sp.5 Brongniart 1800 green sea turtle
 Suliformes - Plotopteridae
Plotopterum joaquinensis n. gen. n. sp.4
Plotopterum joaquinensis n. gen. n. sp.4 Howard 1969 bird
from LACM 1626
 Loricata -
Crocodylia indet.1 crocodilian
 Perissodactyla - Equidae
Anchitherium sp.5 von Meyer 1844 anchitheriine horse
 Carnivora - Enaliarctidae
Enaliarctidae indet.2 Tedford 1976 pinniped
 Carnivora -
Pinnarctidion bishopi2 Barnes 1979 pinniped
Enaliarctos mealsi n. gen. n. sp.5 Mitchell and Tedford 1973 pinniped
 Carnivora - Pinnipedia
 Ungulata - Tayassuidae
aff. Desmathyus sp.5 Matthew 1907 peccary
 Cetacea - Squalodontidae
Squalodontidae indet.5 Brandt 1873 toothed whale
 Cetacea -
"Acrodelphis bakersfieldensis" = Argyrocetus bakersfieldensis8, Argyrocetus joaquinensis2
"Acrodelphis bakersfieldensis" = Argyrocetus bakersfieldensis8 Wilson 1935 toothed whale
Argyrocetus joaquinensis2 Kellogg 1932 toothed whale