Hardie Kaolin Mine (Eocene of the United States)

Also known as Wilkinson Mine, WKR Mine

Where: Wilkinson County, Georgia (32.9° N, 83.4° W: paleocoordinates 33.1° N, 75.4° W)

• coordinate stated in text

• outcrop-level geographic resolution

When: Clinchfield Formation (Barnwell Group), Priabonian (38.0 - 33.9 Ma)

• from "a 1-1.5-m-high stratum" and spoil piles derived from it (Parmley and DeVore 2005)

• bed-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: coastal; sandstone

• "nearshore marine" (Parmley and Cicimurri 2005)
• coarse sands

Size classes: macrofossils, mesofossils

Preservation: original phosphate

Collection methods: bulk, salvage, surface (float), sieve,

• "Intensive surface collecting of spoil piles and screen washing of in situ sediments" (Parmley and DeVore 2005)

Primary reference: J. W. Westgate. 2001. Paleoecology and biostratigraphy of marginal marine gulf coast Eocene vertebrate localities. Eocene Biodiversity: Unusual Occurrences and Rarely Sampled Habitats 263-297 [M. Uhen/M. Uhen/M. Uhen]more details

Purpose of describing collection: general faunal/floral analysis

PaleoDB collection 45640: authorized by Mark Uhen, entered by Mark Uhen on 20.11.2004, edited by Jason Head, John Alroy, Joseph Villari and Patricia Holroyd

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

Chondrichthyes
 Squatiniformes - Squatinidae
Squatina sp. Dumeril 1806 angel shark
Squatina prima2 Winkler 1874 angel shark
 Myliobatiformes - Dasyatidae
Dasyatis sp. Rafinesque 1810 whiptail stingray
 Myliobatiformes - Rhinopteridae
Rhinoptera sp. Cuvier 1829 cownose ray
 Myliobatiformes - Myliobatidae
Myliobatis sp. Cuvier 1816 eagle ray
 Rajiformes - Rajidae
Raja sp. Linnaeus 1758 skate
 Pristiformes - Pristidae
Propristis schweinfurthi Priem 1897 sawfish
 Lamniformes - Otodontidae
Carcharocles angustidens2 Agassiz 1843 mackerel shark
 Lamniformes - Lamnidae
Isurus sp. Agassiz 1843 mako shark
Isurus praecursor2 Thurmond and Jones 1981 mako shark
Carcharodon auriculatus Blainville 1818 white shark
Lamna sp. Cuvier 1816 mackerel shark
 Lamniformes - Odontaspididae
Striatolamia cf. macrota2 Agassiz 1843 sand tiger shark
Carcharias hopei sand shark
Carcharias sp.2 Rafinesque 1810 sand shark
Carcharias acutissima2 Agassiz 1843 sand shark
 Orectolobiformes - Rhincodontidae
Palaeorhincodon sp.2 Herman 1975 whale shark
 Orectolobiformes - Ginglymostomatidae
Nebrius theilensis2, "Ginglymostoma serra" = Nebrius serra
Nebrius theilensis2 nurse shark
"Ginglymostoma serra" = Nebrius serra Leidy 1877 nurse shark
 Carchariniformes - Carcharhinidae
Physogaleus sp. Cappetta 1980 requiem shark
Physogaleus secundus2 Agassiz 1843 requiem shark
Negaprion eurybathrodon2 Blake 1862 lemon shark
Abdounia enniskilleni requiem shark
Galeocerdo latidens Agassiz 1843 tiger shark
Galeocerdo alabamensis2 Leriche 1942 tiger shark
"Negaprion gibbesi" = Carcharhinus gibbesi Woodward 1889 requiem shark
 Carchariniformes - Hemigaleidae
Hemipristis curvatus Dames 1883 ground shark
 Carchariniformes - Triakidae
 Heterodontiformes - Heterodontidae
Heterodontus sp.2 de Blainville 1816 bullhead shark
  - Scyllidae
Scyliorhinus gilberti2 Casier 1946 shark
 Chimaeriformes - Callorhinchidae
Edaphodon sp.3 Buckland 1838 plownose chimaera
Actinopteri
 Elopiformes - Phyllodontidae
Phyllodus sp. Agassiz 1843
 Acanthomorphata - Sphyraenidae
Sphyraena sp. Walbaum 1792 barracuda
 Scombriformes - Trichiuridae
Trichiurus sp. Linnaeus 1758
 Lepisosteiformes - Lepisosteidae
Lepisosteus sp. Agassiz 1843 gar
Reptilia
 Testudines - Dermochelyidae
Dermochelyidae indet.6 Lydekker 1889 leatherback
 Testudines - Cheloniidae
sensu lato Cheloniidae indet.6 Bonaparte 1832 sea turtle
 Testudines - Trionychidae
Trionychinae indet.6 softshell turtle
 Testudines -
Cryptodira indet.6 Cope 1868 turtle
Testudinoidea indet.6 Gray 1825 turtle
Aves
 Charadriiformes - Panalcidae
Alcidae indet.1 Leach 1820 auk
Reptilia
 Crocodylia - Crocodylidae
Crocodylidae indet. Cuvier 1807 crocodile
 Squamata - Palaeophiidae
Palaeophis africanus4 Andrews 1924 snake
 Squamata - Colubridae
Colubridae indet.1 Oppel 1811 colubrid snake
Nebraskophis sp.5 Holman 1973 colubrid snake
 Squamata - Palaeophidae
Pterosphenus schucherti Lucas 1898 squamates
only 11 specimens listed by Parmley and DeVore 2005
Mammalia
 Lagomorpha - Leporidae
Palaeolagus temnodon7 Douglass 1902 rabbit
 Perissodactyla - Brontotheriidae
Megacerops sp.7 Leidy 1870 brontothere
 Perissodactyla - Hyracodontidae
Hyracodon sp.7 Leidy 1856 odd-toed ungulate
 Carnivora - Amphicyonidae
Daphoenus sp.7 Leidy 1853 bear-dog
 Pelagiceti - Basilosauridae
Basilosauridae indet.8 Cope 1867 whale
Dorudon sp.8 Gibbes 1845 whale