Messel (Eocene of Germany)

Also known as ETE Locality 1576, Messel,

Where: Hessen, Germany (49.9° N, 8.7° E: paleocoordinates 46.9° N, 4.8° E)

When: Messel Formation, MP 11 (48.6 - 40.4 Ma)

• ETE dating method: time_unit, ETE age comment: 0.

•Lower Middle-Eocene, Lutetian

•JA: MP 11

Environment/lithology: lacustrine; shale

• ETE sed env 1: lacustrine, ETE sed env 2: . ETE event: flood, ETE env comment: drowning
• ETE rock type adj: 0, ETE lithology comments: .

Preservation: adpression

Collection methods: ETE Size: .; ETE reference list: 666, 664, 645, 493, 638, 983, ; ETE museum list:

Primary reference: E. Wittich. 1898. Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Messeler Braunkohle und ihrer Fauna. Abhandlungen der großherzoglich Hessischen geologischen Landesanstalt zu Darmstadt 3(3):79-147 [J. Alroy/S. Kuemmell/S. Kuemmell]more details

Purpose of describing collection: taxonomic analysis

PaleoDB collection 22701: authorized by Anna Behrensmeyer, entered by Anna Behrensmeyer on 29.05.2001, edited by Philip Mannion, Susanna Kümmell, John Alroy, Emmanuel Fara, Lars van den Hoek Ostende, Mark Uhen, David Nicholson, Terri Cleary and Patricia Holroyd

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

unclassified
  -
Actinopteri
 Amiiformes - Amiidae
"Amia kehreri" = Cyclurus kehreri
"Amia kehreri" = Cyclurus kehreri Andreae 1893 bowfin
 Lepisosteiformes - Lepisosteidae
Reptilia
 Testudines - Trionychidae
"Palaeoamyda messeliana n. gen. n. sp." = Trionyx messelianus3
"Palaeoamyda messeliana n. gen. n. sp." = Trionyx messelianus3 Reinach 1900 softshell turtle
 Testudines - Carettochelyidae
"Anosteira crassesculpta n. sp." = Allaeochelys crassesculpta9, "Anosteira gracilis n. sp." = Allaeochelys crassesculpta9
"Anosteira crassesculpta n. sp." = Allaeochelys crassesculpta9 Harrassowitz 1922 turtle
"Anosteira gracilis n. sp." = Allaeochelys crassesculpta9 Harrassowitz 1922 turtle
 Testudines -
Testudinoidea indet.10 Gray 1825 turtle
Fragments labelled SMF-Me-R109 (but not including the type) listed by Staesche 1928 under Ocadia kehreri
 Testudines - Pantestudinidae
Testudinidae indet.1 Batsch 1788 turtle
originally entered as "Testudo indet."
? Juvemys sp.10 Hervet 2003 turtle
BMNH R 10869, HLD Me 7448
 Testudines -
"Ocadia messeliana n. sp." = Francellia messeliana10, "Euroemys kehreri" = Euroemys kehreri10, "Ocadia kehreri n. sp." = Euroemys kehreri10, Borkenia aff. oschkinisi10
"Ocadia messeliana n. sp." = Francellia messeliana10 Staesche 1928 turtle
Type HLD-Me-1444. Additional material HLD-Me 10477, 7960, 15011, SMF-Me 2607, 2776, 1221, IRSNB-121
"Euroemys kehreri" = Euroemys kehreri10 Staesche 1928 turtle
Specimen HLD-Me-1452 originally referred to Ocadia messeliana by Staesche 1928
"Ocadia kehreri n. sp." = Euroemys kehreri10 Staesche 1928 turtle
Type SMF-Me-R109 (in part). Additional material coll. SMF-Me : 172, 1557a, 202, 717a, 1457, 1458a, 2764, 1564, 1679, 1782 (Pl. 3, Figs. D et E), 1340 (Schaal et Ziegler, 1988 : Figs. 160 et 161) (Pl. 3, Figs.A et B), 1797, 1807, 2100, 2761, 2767, 3002 ; coll. HLD-Me : 15033, 148, 7229, 8877, 8051, Be-139, Be-142, 15562, 14749, Be-157 ; LNK-Me-sans numéro (Pl. 3, Fig. G) ; coll. IRSNB : 117 (Pl. 3, Fig. F), 289 (Pl. 3, Fig. C), 1-535, 26802 ; MNSD 580/77B18 (Groessens Van Dyck, 1978 : Fig. 2)
Borkenia aff. oschkinisi10 Schleich 1994 turtle
SMNS 54849, LNK-395, IRSBN IG28502
Aves
  -
Aves "unknown genus and species C"25 Linnaeus 1758 bird
SMF-ME 11607
Aves "unknown genus and species D"25 Linnaeus 1758 bird
SMF-ME 707A+B
Aves "unknown genus and species E"25 Linnaeus 1758 bird
SMF-ME 1231
Aves "unknown genus and species F"25 Linnaeus 1758 bird
SMF-ME 11286
  - Psittacopedidae
Eofringillirostrum parvulum n. sp.12 Ksepka et al. 2019 bird
 Cathartiformes - Cathartidae
Plesiocathartes kelleri n. sp.17 Mayr 2002 New World vulture
 Ornithurae -
Perplexicervix microcephalon n. gen. n. sp.24 Mayr 2010 bird
"Messel": type in the SMF collection, referred specimen in the HLMD
 Ornithurae - Gracilitarsidae
Gracilitarsus mirabilis n. gen. n. sp.15
Gracilitarsus mirabilis n. gen. n. sp.15 Mayr 1998 bird
type and referred specimens from "Messel"
 Strigiformes - Strigidae
Strigogyps sp.25 Gaillard 1908 true owl
SMF-ME 1645A+B
Strigogyps sapea25 true owl
 Psittaciformes - Messelasturidae
Messelastur gratulator n. gen. n. sp.29
Messelastur gratulator n. gen. n. sp.29 Peters 1994 parrot
type from "L13 (Grabungsstelle 32), 26-43 cm unter Leithorizont M"; referred specimen of Mayr 2011 is in the SMF
 Cuculiformes - Cuculidae
cf. Dynamopterus sp.25 Milne-Edward 1891 cuckoo
SMF-ME 1577
 Coraciiformes - Eocoraciidae
Eocoracias brachyptera n. gen. n. sp.27
Eocoracias brachyptera n. gen. n. sp.27 Mayr and Mourer-Chauviré 2000 bird
from "Messel": type in the SMNK collection, referred specimens in the SMF and HLMD collections
 Upupiformes - Messelirrisoridae
Messelirrisor grandis n. sp.14 Mayr 2000 bird
from "Messel": type in the SMNK collection, referred specimen in the SMF collection
 Coraciiformes -
Primobucco perneri n. sp.28 Mayr and Mourer-Chauviré 2004 bird
from "Messel": type in the SMNK collection
Primobucco frugilegus n. sp.28 Mayr and Mourer-Chauviré 2004 bird
from "Messel": type in the SMF collection
 Ornithurae - Zygodactylidae
 Coliiformes -
Chascacocolius cacicirostris n. sp.20 Mayr 2005 mousebird
from "Messel": type in the SMF collection
 Trogoniformes - Trogonidae
? Primotrogon pumilio n. sp.19 Mayr 2005 trogon
from "Messel": SMNS collection
 Ornithurae -
Protocypselomorphus manfredkelleri n. gen. n. sp.22 Mayr 2005 bird
from "Messel": type in the SMF collection
 Caprimulgiformes - Steatornithidae
Paraprefica kelleri n. gen. n. sp.13, Paraprefica major n. sp.13
Paraprefica kelleri n. gen. n. sp.13 Mayr 1999 oilbird
Paraprefica major n. sp.13 Mayr 1999 oilbird
 Caprimulgiformes - Podargidae
Masillapodargus longipes n. gen. n. sp.13
Masillapodargus longipes n. gen. n. sp.13 Mayr 1999 frogmouth
 Apodiformes - Jungornithidae
Parargornis messelensis n. gen. n. sp.18
Parargornis messelensis n. gen. n. sp.18 Mayr 2003 swift
from "Messel": HLMD collection
 Ornithurae -
Gruiformes "unknown genus and species A"25 Bonaparte 1854 bird
SMF-ME 778
Gruiformes "unknown genus and species B"25 Bonaparte 1854 bird
SMF-ME 11606
 Pelecaniformes - Threskiornithidae
Rhynchaeites messelensis n. gen. n. sp. Wittich 1898 ibis
Rhynchaeites messelensis9 Wittich 1898 ibis
 Ornithurae - Fluvioviridavidae
Eurofluvioviridavis robustipes n. gen. n. sp.21 Mayr 2005 bird
from "Messel": skull in the SMF collection
 Suliformes - Sulidae
Masillastega rectirostris n. gen. n. sp.16
Masillastega rectirostris n. gen. n. sp.16 Mayr 2002 booby
 Lithornithiformes - Lithornithidae
Lithornithidae indet.23 Houde 1988 bird
from "Messel": SGPIMH specimen
Reptilia
 Loricata -
Bergisuchus dietrichbergi n. gen. n. sp.30
Bergisuchus dietrichbergi n. gen. n. sp.30 Kuhn 1968 crocodilian
HLMD-Me 7003 - holotype (anterior part of a left lower jaw and a snout fragment, both from one individual)
 Crocodylia - Crocodylidae
"Crocodilus ebertsi" = Crocodylus
"Crocodilus ebertsi" = Crocodylus crocodile
 Crocodylia -
Diplocynodon darwini n. sp.4, "Baryphracta deponiae n. gen. n. sp." = Diplocynodon deponiae8
Diplocynodon darwini n. sp.4 Ludwig 1877 crocodilian
HLMD-Me 7492 - holotype (complete skeleton)
"Baryphracta deponiae n. gen. n. sp." = Diplocynodon deponiae8 Frey et al. 1987 crocodilian
SMF ME 899 (skeleton exposed in left lateral and ventral views); referred specimens: IRSNB R 261 (near complete skeleton); HLMD Me 7496 (exposing the dorsal side); HLMD Me 8080 (exposing the right lateral [slightly] and ventral sides); IRSNB R 261; IRSNB R 262 (IG 26467; exposing the ventral side); SMF ME 1114 (exposing the left lateral and ventral sides); SMF ME 1348 (juvenile, exposing the left lateral and ventral sides) and SMF ME 2609 (exposing the dorsal side)
 Crocodylia - Alligatoridae
Alligator darwini Ludwig 1877 alligator
Hassiacosuchus haupti n. gen. n. sp.35 Weitzel 1935 crocodilian
 Squamata - Anguidae
Placosauriops weigelti2 Kuhn 1940 squamates
some more or less complete skeletons
 Squamata - Boidae
Palaeopython fischeri n. sp.31, "Messelophis ermannorum n. sp." = Rieppelophis ermannorum33, Messelophis variatus n. gen. n. sp.33
Palaeopython fischeri n. sp.31 Schaal 2004 boa
"Messelophis ermannorum n. sp." = Rieppelophis ermannorum33 Schaal and Baszio 2004 snake
see Schaal and Baszio 2004. SMF ME 1812 (holotype), five trunk vertebrae
Messelophis variatus n. gen. n. sp.33 Baszio 2004 boa
see Baszio 2004. SMF ME 1828a, 1828b, articulated nearly complete skeleton and ME 1828c (holotype of three parts), four isolated vertebrae
 Squamata -
Ornatocephalus metzleri n. gen. n. sp.2
Ornatocephalus metzleri n. gen. n. sp.2 Weber 2004 squamates
SMF ME 3516 (holotype), articulated specimen
Mammalia
 Primates -
Darwinius masillae n. gen. n. sp.7
Darwinius masillae n. gen. n. sp.7 Franzen et al. 2009 primate
 Primates - Notharctidae
Europolemur koenigswaldi n. sp.6 Franzen 1987 primate
 Rodentia - Ischyromyidae
Plesiarctomys sp.9 Bravard 1848 rodent
 Perissodactyla - Palaeotheriidae
Propalaeotherium sp.5 Gervais odd-toed ungulate
 Tribosphenida - Pseudorhyncocyonidae
Leptictidium tobieni n. sp.11 Koenigswald and Storch 1987 placental
Leptictidium auderiense n. gen. n. sp.11 Tobien 1962 placental
Leptictidium nasutum n. sp.11 Storch and Lister 1985 placental
 Chiroptera - Archaeonycteridae
 Chiroptera - Emballonuridae
Tachypteron franzeni n. gen. n. sp.32
Tachypteron franzeni n. gen. n. sp.32 Storch et al. 2002 sac-winged bat
type in IRSNB collection
 Didelphimorphia - Didelphidae
Didelphidae indet.34 opossum
probably Peratherium or Amphiperatherium
Magnoliopsida
 Rosales - Rosaceae
? Prunus sp. Linnaeus 1753 plum