Maloney Creek (Pahasapasaurus type locality) (Cretaceous of the United States)

Also known as Just south of the Belle Fourch River, foughly 6 miles southeast of Fruitdale

Where: Butte County County, South Dakota (44.7° N, 103.6° W: paleocoordinates 44.0° N, 63.7° W)

• coordinate estimated from map

When: Dunveganoceras pondi ammonoid zone, Greenhorn Limestone Formation (Colorado Group), Late/Upper Cenomanian (99.6 - 93.5 Ma)

• "Field notes of C. Haas state that the specimen originated in the “sharkstooth sandstone, Graneros Formation along Maloney Creek, Butte County, South Dakota.” Cobban (1951) reassigned this bed as the base of the Greenhorn Formation, Gries and Martin (1985) referred the unit to the Greenhorn Limestone, and VonLoh and Bell (1998) assigned this as the basal Orman Lake Member of the Greenhorn Formation. At the time Mr. Haas collected the specimen, he had the foresight to retain associated materials from the excavation pit. In the Black Hills and throughout the Western Interior the base of the Greenhorn is marked by characteristic calcarenite (as defined by Folk, 1974) layers, which are rich in shark teeth and other particulate vertebrate material (Hattin, 1975). One slab of calcarenite matrix retained with the specimen bears an impression of the ammonite Dunveganoceras pondi (early late Cenomanian). Numerous teeth of sharks and bony fish were encountered during preparation of the unopened blocks, including Squalicorax falcatus, Cretodus sp., Cretolamna appendiculata, Ptychodus occidentalis, Pachyrhizodus sp., Protosphyraena sp., and Enchodus sp. Examination of the enclosing matrix, identification of associated fossil materials, and photographs taken at the excavation site in 1934 (Fig. 3) conclusively demonstrate that the specimen originated at the base of the Greenhorn Limestone" (Schumacher 2007, p. 134).

• formation-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: marine; calcareous sandstone

• In the Black Hills and throughout the Western Interior the base of the Greenhorn is marked by characteristic calcarenite (as defined by Folk, 1974) layers, which are rich in shark teeth and other particulate vertebrate material (Hattin, 1975).

Size class: macrofossils

Collected by Charles C. Haas and his son, Arthur in 1934

Collection methods: quarrying

• AMM, Adams Memorial Museum collection

Primary reference: B. A. Schumacher. 2007. A new polycotylid plesiosaur (Reptilia; Sauropterygia) from the Greenhorn Limestone (Upper Cretaceous; lower upper Cenomanian), Black Hills, South Dakota. Geological Society of America Special Paper 427:133-146 [R. Benson/R. Benson]more details

Purpose of describing collection: taxonomic analysis

PaleoDB collection 117819: authorized by Roger Benson, entered by Roger Benson on 27.09.2011

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

Cephalopoda
 Ammonitida - Acanthoceratidae
Dunveganoceras pondi Haas 1949 ammonite
Impression
Chondrichthyes
 Hybodontiformes - Ptychodontidae
Ptychodus occidentalis Leidy 1868 elasmobranch
Teeth
 Lamniformes - Anacoracidae
Squalicorax falcatus Agassiz 1843 crow shark
Teeth
 Lamniformes - Cretoxyrhinidae
Cretolamna appendiculata Agassiz 1843 mackerel shark
Teeth
Cretodus sp. Sokolov 1965 mackerel shark
Teeth
Actinopteri
 Salmoniformes - Enchodontidae
Enchodus sp. Agassiz 1843
Teeth
 Crossognathiformes - Pachyrhizodontidae
Pachyrhizodus sp. Agassiz 1850
Teeth
 Pachycormiformes - Pachycormidae
Protosphyraena sp. Leidy 1857
Teeth
Reptilia
 Sauropterygia - Polycotylidae
Pahasapasaurus haasi n. gen. n. sp.
Pahasapasaurus haasi n. gen. n. sp. Schumacher 2007 plesiosaur
AMM 98.1.1 (holotype, partial skeleton)