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Crocodylia (crocodilian)

Reptilia -

Crocodilia was named by Owen (1842) [originally spelled Crocodilia by Owen; corrected by Wermuth 1953; also falsely attributed to Laurenti 1768 (based on naming of Crocodylus) and Gmelin 1789 (see Dundee 1989)]. It is extant. It was considered monophyletic by Thies et al. (1997).

It was synonymized subjectively with Emydosaurii by Bonaparte (1850); it was reranked as the subclass Crocodilia by Gadow (1898); it was synonymized subjectively with Loricata by Hay (1902); it was reranked as the suborder Crocodili by Jaekel (1910); it was corrected as Crocodylia by Kuhn (1966), Bakker and Galton (1974), Cooper (1981), Holman and Case (1988), Carroll (1988), Frank and Ramus (1996), Thies et al. (1997), Sereno et al. (2001), Peng et al. (2001) and Pearson et al. (2002); it was reranked as the suborder Crocodylia by Walker (1970); it was reranked as the unranked clade Crocodilia by Gardiner (1982); it was reranked as the unranked clade Crocodylia by Gauthier et al. (1989), Williamson (1996), Brochu (2000), Molnar et al. (2002), Brochu (2004), Hua and Jouve (2004), Brochu (2006), Salisbury et al. (2006), Turner (2006), Brochu et al. (2009), Andrade et al. (2011) and Bronzati et al. (2012).

It was assigned to Sauropsida by Baur (1887); to Diapsida by Osborn (1903) and Osborn (1903); to Diaptosauria by Osborn (1904); to Loricati by Jaekel (1910); to Archosauromorpha by Huene (1954); to Archosauria by Kuhn (1966); to Crocodylomorpha by Walker (1970); to Archosauria by Gardiner (1982); to Crocodyliformes by Gauthier et al. (1989); to Crocodilomorphi by Cooper (1981) and Williamson (1996); to Archosauria by Haughton and Brink (1954), Kuhn (1964), Bakker and Galton (1974), Thulborn (1975), Thurmond and Jones (1981) and Thies et al. (1997); to Archosauria by Roxo (1937), Carroll (1988) and Peng et al. (2001); to Reptilia by Mantell (1854), Owen (1861), Cope (1871), Leidy (1873), Cope (1875), Günther (1886), Zittel (1890), Gadow (1898), Woodward (1898), Case (1901), Case (1904), Andrews (1906), Lambe (1908), Swinton (1934), Kuhn (1946), Estes (1964), Estes and Berberian (1970), Sahni and Srivastava (1976), Holman and Case (1988), Frank and Ramus (1996), Pearson et al. (2002) and Sepkoski (2002); to Eusuchia by Brochu (2000) and Hua and Jouve (2004); to Neosuchia by Sereno et al. (2001) and Turner (2006); and to Eusuchia by Molnar et al. (2002), Brochu (2004), Brochu (2006), Salisbury et al. (2006), Brochu et al. (2009), Andrade et al. (2011) and Bronzati et al. (2012).

View classification of included taxa

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1831Crocodilus delucii Gray
1831Crocodilus dodunii Gray
1842Crocodilia Owen
1843Pyrenodon Dujardin
1849Gavialis dixoni Owen
1854Crocodilia Mantell p. 646
1861Crocodilia Owen p. 298
1868Crocodilus pristinus Leidy p. 179
1869Thecachampsa squankensis Marsh
1870Bottosaurus tuberculatus Cope p. 230
1870Thecachampsa squankensis Marsh p. 98
1871Crocodilia Cope p. 234
1872Thecachampsa serrata Cope p. 17
1872Thecachampsa squankensis Cope p. 17
1873Crocodilia Leidy p. 125
1875Crocodilus sphenops Cope
1875Crocodilia Cope p. 14
1875Crocodilus sphenops Cope p. 31
1875Diplocynodus sphenops Cope p. 31
1876Dinosuchus terror Gervais
1879Brachydectes major Owen
1885Oweniasuchus major Woodward
1886Crocodilia Günther p. 444
1887Crocodilia Baur p. 101
1888Isselosaurus doduni Filhol
1890Crocodilia Zittel p. 450
1892Colossoemys Barbosa Rodrigues
1892Colossoemys macrococcygeana Barbosa Rodrigues
1892Emys quaternaria Barbosa Rodrigues
1898Crocodilia Gadow p. 18
1898Crocodilia Woodward p. 141
1901Crocodilia Case p. 95
1902Crocodylus squankensis Hay p. 513
1902Bottosaurus tuberculatus Hay p. 514
1902Diplocynodon sphenops Hay p. 514
1903Crocodilia Osborn p. 276
1904Crocodilia Case p. 64
1904Crocodilia Osborn p. 113
1905Gavialis papuensis de Vis
1906Crocodilia Andrews p. 261
1908Crocodilia Lambe
1910Crocodili Jaekel p. 340
1921Brachygnathosuchus braziliensis Mook pp. 48-49 figs. 1-4
1934Crocodilia Swinton p. 24
1937Crocodilia Roxo p. 44
1937Dollosuchus dixoni Swinton
1937Europaeosuchus Swinton
1946Crocodilia Kuhn p. 64
1954Crocodilia Haughton and Brink p. 4
1954Crocodilia Huene p. 53
1958Oweniasuchus major Delair p. 63
1964Crocodilia Estes p. 141
1964Crocodilia Kuhn p. 312
1966Crocodylia Kuhn p. 81
1970Crocodilia Estes and Berberian p. 6
1970Crocodylia Walker p. 368
1974Crocodylia Bakker and Galton p. 171
1975Crocodilia Thulborn p. 267
1976Crocodilia Sahni and Srivastava p. 925
1981Chelus macrococcygeanus Campos and de Broin
1981Chelus quaternarius Campos and de Broin
1981Crocodylia Cooper p. 694
1981Crocodilia Thurmond and Jones p. 142
1982Asiatosuchus zajsanicus Efimov
1982Crocodilia Gardiner p. 229
1988Crocodylia Carroll
1988Dollosuchus zajsanicus Efimov
1988Crocodylia Holman and Case p. 331
1989Crocodylia Gauthier et al. p. 349
1996Crocodylia Frank and Ramus
1996Crocodylia Williamson p. 422
1997Crocodylia Thies et al.
1998Asiatosuchus zajsanicus Angielczyk and Gingerich
2000Crocodylia Brochu p. 181
2001Crocodylia Peng et al. p. 32
2001Crocodylia Sereno et al. p. 1518
2002Crocodylia Molnar et al. p. 613
2002Crocodylia Pearson et al. p. 154
2002Crocodilia Sepkoski, Jr.
2004Crocodylia Brochu p. 611
2004Crocodylia Hua and Jouve p. 341
2006Crocodylia Brochu p. 167
2006Crocodylia Salisbury et al. p. 2443
2006Crocodylia Turner
2009Crocodylia Brochu et al. p. 538
2011Crocodylia Andrade et al.
2012Crocodylia Bronzati et al.

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phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
SauriaGauthier 1984
Archosauromorpha(Huene 1946)
ArchosauriformesGauthier 1986
Pseudosuchia(Zittel 1890)
SuchiaKrebs 1974
Loricata(Merrem 1820)
MesoeucrocodyliaWhetstone and Whybrow 1983
NeosuchiaClark 1988
suborderEusuchiaHuxley 1875
Crocodylia(Owen 1842)
Crocodylia(Owen 1842)

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

R. Owen 1861Teeth in a single row, implanted in distinct sockets; external nostril single and terminal or sub-terminal. Anterior trunk vertebrae with par- and di-apophyses, and bifurcate ribs; sacral vertebra two, each supporting its own neural arch : this arch usually articulated by suture. Skin protected by bony, usually pitted, plates.
No measurements are available
Composition: phosphaticsubp
Environment: marineuc
Locomotion: actively mobilec
Diet: carnivoreuc
Created: 2009-01-03 20:38:59
Modified: 2009-01-03 22:38:59
Source: c = class, subp = subphylum, uc = unranked clade
References: Benton 1983, Carroll 1988, Bush and Bambach 2015, Hendy et al. 2009

Age range

Maximum range based only on fossils: base of the Carnian to the top of the Holocene or 237.00000 to 0.00000 Ma
Minimum age of oldest fossil (stem group age): 228.0 Ma

Collections (2170 total)

Oldest occurrences

Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Carnian237.0 - 228.0Slovenia Walteria sp. (66930)
Carnian237.0 - 228.0Lesotho (Maseru) Dijaquesopus obliquus (206549)
Norian - Rhaetian228.0 - 201.3Poland (Slaskie) Nihilichnus nihilicus (85500)
Norian - Rhaetian228.0 - 201.3Lesotho (Mafeteng) Crocodylia indet. (59291)
Rhaetian208.5 - 201.3United Kingdom (England) Crocodilia indet. (120898) Crocodylia indet. (53829)
Hettangian - Sinemurian201.3 - 190.8South Africa (Eastern Cape) Crocodylia indet. (75193)
Sinemurian - Pliensbachian199.3 - 182.7USA (Arizona) Crocodylia indet. (27717)
Toarcian - Aalenian182.7 - 170.3India (Andhra Pradesh) Crocodylia indet. (39673)
Aalenian174.1 - 170.3United Kingdom (England) Crocodilia indet. (202018)
Middle Jurassic174.1 - 163.5China (Sichuan) Theropoda indet. (47078)
Middle Jurassic - Late/Upper Jurassic174.1 - 145.0Thailand (Krabi) Crocodylia indet. (52916)
Late/Upper Bajocian - Early/Lower Bathonian171.6 - 164.7France Crocodylia indet. (58416)
Bajocian170.3 - 168.3United Kingdom (England) Crocodilia indet. (155257)
Bajocian170.3 - 168.3India (Rajasthan) Crocodylia indet. (61181)
Bathonian168.3 - 166.1United Kingdom (England) Rhamphocephalus prestwichi (57121)
Bathonian168.3 - 166.1Madagascar (Mahajanga) Crocodylia indet. (92016)
Bathonian - Callovian168.3 - 163.5Niger (Agadez) Crocodylia indet. (181364)
Early/Lower Bathonian167.7 - 164.7United Kingdom (England) Crocodilia indet. (82263) Crocodylia indet. (31054 45931 82253)
Early/Lower Bathonian - Middle Bathonian167.7 - 164.7United Kingdom (Scotland) Crocodylia indet. (105872)
Late/Upper Bathonian167.7 - 164.7United Kingdom (England) Crocodylia indet. (57124 57125 57139 166423)