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Original taxonomic rank is not given in the reference.

Craniata was named by Linnaeus (1758) [really?]. It is extant. It was considered monophyletic by Heimberg et al. (2010).

It was synonymized objectively with Vertebrata by Heimberg et al. (2010); it was reranked as the subphylum Craniata by Edgecombe et al. (2011) and Zhang (2011).

It was assigned to Olfactores by Edgecombe et al. (2011); to Cephalochordata by Zhang (2011); and to Chordata by Van Der Laan (2019).

  • Coluber arcuatus was named by von Meyer (1845). It is a 3D body fossil. Its type locality is Öhningen, which is in a MN 7 + 8 lacustrine limestone in the Upper Freshwater Molasse Formation of Germany.

    It was considered a nomen dubium by Szyndlar (1997).
Synonymy list
YearName and author
1758Craniata Linnaeus
1845Coluber arcuatus von Meyer p. 42 figs. 5 pl. 2
2011Craniata Edgecombe et al. p. 153 figs. Fig. 1
2011Craniata Zhang
2019Craniata Van Der Laan p. 15

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phylumChordataHaeckel 1847

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

No diagnoses are available
No measurements are available
Composition: hydroxyapatitesubp
Locomotion: actively mobilep
Created: 2007-09-27 04:49:26
Modified: 2017-03-09 14:07:44
Source: subp = subphylum, p = phylum
Reference: Kiessling 2004

Age range

Maximum range based only on fossils: base of the Tommotian to the top of the MN 7 + 8 or 530.00000 to 11.10000 Ma
Minimum age of oldest fossil (stem group age): 513.0 Ma

Collections (238 total)

Oldest occurrences

Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Tommotian - Botomian530.0 - 513.0China (Hubei) Conodontomorpha indet. (10500)
Arenig478.6 - 466.0Australia (Northern Territory) Arandaspis prionotolepis (90386) Porophoraspis crenulata, Arandaspis prionotolepis (90382)
Arenig478.6 - 466.0Norway Anatolepis heintzi (90321)
Bendigonian476.8 - 473.9Australia (Northern Territory) Porophoraspis sp. (90417)
Dapingian - Darriwilian470.0 - 458.4Oman Sacabambaspis sp. (90376)
Darriwilian467.3 - 458.4Oman Sacabambaspis sp. (90377)
Sarka466.0 - 466.0Czech Republic Pteraspis sp. (3857)
Dobrotiva466.0 - 460.9Czech Republic Pteraspis sp. (3859)
Early/Lower Llandeilo466.0 - 460.9Argentina Sacabambaspis janvieri (8868)
Llanvirn466.0 - 460.9Norway Anatolepis heintzi (67174)
Llanvirn466.0 - 460.9Australia (Northern Territory) Arandaspis sp., Porophoraspis sp. (90420) Sacabambaspis sp. (90418)
Llanvirn466.0 - 460.9Australia (New South Wales) Arandaspis sp. (90375)
Caradoc460.9 - 449.5USA (Colorado) Astraspis desiderata, Astraspis splendens, Eriptychius americanus (10380)
Caradocian460.9 - 449.5Bolivia Sacabambaspis janvieri (90387 90478)
Caradocian460.9 - 449.5Australia (Northern Territory) Sacabambaspis sp. (90419)
Franklinian460.9 - 449.5Canada (Ontario) Astraspis desiderata (90403 90404 90405 90406 90407 90408 90410 90411 90412) Eriptychius sp., Astraspis desiderata (90409) Eriptychius sp., Astraspis desiderata, Larolepis darbyi (90381)
Franklinian460.9 - 449.5USA (Colorado) Astraspis desiderata (155772) Astraspis desiderata, Eriptychius americanus (155756)
Rocklandian460.9 - 449.5USA (Wisconsin) Anatolepis heintzi (90362)
Shermanian460.9 - 449.5USA (Wisconsin) Anatolepis heintzi (90366)
Richmondian449.5 - 443.7USA (Wyoming) Astraspis desiderata, Eriptychius americanus (65239)