Basic info Taxonomic history Classification Relationships
Morphology Ecology and taphonomy External Literature Search Age range and collections

Sphyrnidae (hammerhead shark)

Chondrichthyes - Carchariniformes - Sphyrnidae

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1872Sphyrnidae Gill
1902Sphyrninae Hay p. 314
1963Sphyrnidae Jordan p. 600
1981Sphyrnidae Case p. 66
2001Sphyrnidae Purdy et al. p. 157
2005Sphyrnidae Compagno
2007Sphyrnidae Adnet et al. p. 314
2009Sphyrnidae Cicimurri and Knight p. 635
2018Sphyrnidae Kent p. 121

Is something missing? Join the Paleobiology Database and enter the data

RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
classChondrichthyes
RankNameAuthor
subclassElasmobranchiiBonaparte 1838
infraclassEuselachii()
NeoselachiiCompagno 1977
Selachii
superorderGaleomorphi
orderCarchariniformes(Compagno 1973)
familySphyrnidaeGill 1872
familySphyrnidaeGill 1872

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
No diagnoses are available
Measurements
No measurements are available
Composition: phosphaticsubp
Environment: marinesubp
Locomotion: actively mobileo
Life habit: nektonico
Diet: carnivoreo
Created: 2009-07-21 06:53:24
Modified: 2009-07-21 08:53:24
Source: o = order, subp = subphylum
References: Wagner 2017, Carroll 1988, Hendy et al. 2009

Age range

Maximum range based only on fossils: base of the Late/Upper Paleocene to the top of the Late/Upper Pleistocene or 58.70000 to 0.01170 Ma
Minimum age of oldest fossil (stem group age): 56.0 Ma

Collections (115 total)


Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Thanetian59.2 - 56.0USA (Maryland) Sphyrna prisca (124191)
Late/Upper Paleocene58.7 - 55.8USA (Maryland) Sphyrna sp. (84046)
Ypresian56.0 - 47.8Saudi Arabia (Ash Sharqiyah) Sphyrna prisca (42459)
Lutetian47.8 - 41.3Togo Sphyrna sp. (32991)
Lutetian47.8 - 41.3Nigeria Sphyrna itoriensis, Sphyrna tortilis (187560)
Priabonian38.0 - 33.9Western Sahara Sphyrna sp. (96686 96688)
Priabonian38.0 - 33.9USA (South Carolina) Negaprion gilmorei (202013 202014)
Priabonian38.0 - 33.9USA (Alabama) Sphyrna gilmorei (28983)
Priabonian38.0 - 33.9Egypt Sphyrna sp. (145984)
Late/Upper Eocene37.2 - 33.9USA (Georgia) Negaprion gilmorei (160400) Sphyrna zygaena (73434)
Early/Lower Oligocene33.9 - 28.4France Carcharhinus elongatus (69805)
Early/Lower Oligocene33.9 - 28.4Pakistan (Balochistan) Sphyrna sp. (78520)
Rupelian33.9 - 28.1Hungary Carcharhinus elongatus (186636)
Oligocene - Miocene33.9 - 5.333Argentina (Chubut) Sphyrna sp. (133690)
Whitneyan33.3 - 30.8USA (Florida) Sphyrna sp. (17341)
Late/Upper Oligocene - Langhian28.4 - 13.82Peru (Ica) Sphyrna zygaena (100330)
Chattian28.1 - 23.03USA (South Carolina) Sphyrna media, Sphyrna zygaena (97550)
Chattian28.1 - 23.03Germany (Mecklenburg-Vorpommern) Carcharhinus elongatus (32012)
Chattian28.1 - 23.03USA (California) Sphyrna aus, Sphyrna bus (11601)
Aquitanian23.03 - 20.44Colombia (La Guajira) Sphyrna laevissima (182218)
Aquitanian23.03 - 20.44USA (Maryland) Sphyrna sp. (71794)
Early/Lower Miocene23.03 - 15.97Colombia (La Guajira) Sphyrnidae sp. (166506)
Early/Lower Miocene23.03 - 15.97India Sphyrna diplana (87485) Sphyrna zagaena (78641)
Early/Lower Miocene23.03 - 15.97Cuba (Sancti Spiritus) Sphyrna mokarran (31183)
Early/Lower Miocene23.03 - 15.97Venezuela (Paraguana) Sphyrna sp. (118106)
Early/Lower Miocene23.03 - 15.97Brazil Sphyrna magna, Sphyrna prisca (112581)
Early/Lower Miocene23.03 - 15.97Saudi Arabia Sphyrna sp. (47026)
Early/Lower Miocene23.03 - 15.97Brazil (Para) Sphyrna magna (58454 65162 112580 112590)
Early/Lower Miocene23.03 - 15.97USA (North Carolina) Sphyrna zygaena (71660)
Aquitanian - Langhian23.03 - 13.82USA (North Carolina) Sphyrna media, Sphyrna zygaena (48887)
Early/Lower Miocene - Middle Miocene23.03 - 11.608Australia (Victoria) Sphyrna sp., Sphyrna prisca (51330)
Miocene23.03 - 5.333USA (South Carolina) Sphyrna americana (18506)
Burdigalian20.44 - 15.97Malta (Gozo) Sphyrna arambourgi (161385)
Burdigalian20.44 - 15.97Peru Sphyrnidae indet. (167732)
Burdigalian20.44 - 15.97USA (New Jersey) Zygaena prisca (18587)
Burdigalian - Langhian20.44 - 13.82Cuba Sphyrna prisca (159595)
MN 416.9 - 15.97Egypt Sphyrna prisca (53970)
Langhian15.97 - 13.82USA (Maryland) Carcharias laevissimus, Carcharias magna, Sphyrna magna, Sphyrna prisca (57782) Sphyrna prisca (55517) Sphyrna sp., Galeocerdo laevissimus, Sphyrna magna, Sphyrna prisca (55396)
Langhian15.97 - 13.82Mexico (Baja California) Sphyrna sp. (52183)
Langhian15.97 - 13.82Australia (Victoria) Sphyrna prisca (46165 204306)
Langhian15.97 - 13.82France (Touraine) Sphyrna arambourgi, Sphyrna zygaena (161611)
Langhian15.97 - 13.82Portugal (Penedo) Sphyrna sp., Sphyrna zygaena (161620)
Langhian15.97 - 13.82USA (Virginia) Sphyrna sp. (57700)
Langhian15.97 - 13.82France Sphyrna arambourgi (90354)
Langhian15.97 - 13.82France (Loupian) Sphyrna arambourgi, Sphyrna zygaena (161623)
Langhian15.97 - 13.82USA (California) Sphyrna sp. (59059)
MN 515.97 - 13.65Austria Sphyrna sp. (51002)
Middle Miocene15.97 - 11.608Venezuela (Falcon) Sphyrna sp. (161210)
Middle Miocene15.97 - 11.608India Sphyrna diplana (72085)
Middle Miocene15.97 - 11.608Japan (Gifu) Sphyrna sp. (161445)
Middle Miocene15.97 - 11.608India (Orissa) Sphyrna lewini (46366) Sphyrna sp., Sphyrna lewini (46343)
Serravallian13.82 - 11.62USA (Maryland) Sphyrna laevissima, Sphyrna prisca (18518)
Serravallian13.82 - 11.62France (Gironde) Sphyrna arambourgi (161533) Sphyrna sp., Sphyrna mokarran, Sphyrna arambourgi, Sphyrna zygaena (161524) Sphyrna zygaena (161525 161527)
Badenian13.65 - 12.7Czech Republic (Mikulov) Sphyrna sp. (161993)
Badenian13.65 - 12.7Slovakia (Bratislava) Sphyrna zygaena (161996)
Badenian13.65 - 12.7Poland Sphyrna sp. (162017)
Early/Lower Clarendonian13.6 - 10.3USA (Florida) Sphyrna sp. (162456)
Tortonian11.62 - 7.246Panama (Colon) Sphyrna lewini (160781)
Tortonian11.62 - 7.246Peru Sphyrna media (96800)
Tortonian11.62 - 7.246Madagascar Sphyrna prisca (51586)
Tortonian11.62 - 7.246Panama Sphyrna arambourgi, Sphyrna zygaena (24237) Sphyrna mokarran (187583) Sphyrna mokarran, Sphyrna sp. (96700)
Tortonian11.62 - 7.246Argentina (Entre Rios) Sphyrna sp. (140010) Sphyrnidae indet. (128628)
Tortonian11.62 - 7.246Venezuela Sphyrna mokarran (200110) Sphyrna mokarran, Sphyrna zygaena (200111)
Tortonian - Messinian11.62 - 5.333USA (California) Sphyrna sp. (13300)
Tortonian - Zanclean11.62 - 3.6Ecuador Sphyrna media (204352)
Late/Upper Miocene11.608 - 5.333Panama (Panama) Sphyrna lewini (191988 191990 191993) Sphyrna mokarran, Sphyrna lewini, Sphyrna zygaena (191987) Sphyrna mokarran, Sphyrna zygaena (191995) Sphyrna zygaena (191996 191997 191998)
Late/Upper Miocene11.608 - 5.333Portugal Sphyrna sp., Sphyrna zygaena (56459)
Late/Upper Miocene11.608 - 5.333Peru (Piura) Sphyrna lewini, Sphyrna zygaena (162465)
Late/Upper Miocene11.608 - 5.333Venezuela (Falcon) Sphyrna sp. (162677)
Late/Upper Miocene11.608 - 5.333Costa Rica (Limon) Sphyrna zygaena (162678)
Late/Upper Miocene11.608 - 5.333Venezuela Sphyrna sp. (92751)
Late/Upper Miocene - Early/Lower Pliocene11.608 - 3.6USA (California) Sphyrna sp. (55448)
Hemphillian10.3 - 4.9Costa Rica (Puntarenas) Sphyrna arambourgi (144596)
Messinian7.246 - 5.333Japan (Chiba) Sphyrna zygaena (202927)
Messinian7.246 - 5.333Portugal Sphyrna sp. (91423)
MN 137.246 - 4.9Portugal (Alvalade) Sphyrna sp. (65955)
MN 137.246 - 4.9Portugal Sphyrna sp. (65954)
Messinian - Zanclean7.246 - 3.6Mexico (Baja) Sphyrna vespertina, Sphyrna mokarran, Sphyrna lewini, Sphyrna media, Sphyrna zygaena (154117)
Messinian - Zanclean7.246 - 3.6Japan (Chiba) Sphyrna zygaena (70006)
Messinian - Piacenzian7.246 - 2.588Australia (South Australia) Sphyrna sp. (50343)
Zanclean5.333 - 3.6South Africa Sphyrna zygaena (100313)
Zanclean5.333 - 3.6USA (North Carolina) Sphyrna lewini, Sphyrna media, Sphyrna zygaena (52582)
Zanclean5.333 - 3.6Libya Sphyrna sp., Sphyrna zygaena (136597)
Zanclean5.333 - 3.6USA (California) Sphyrna sp. (184962)
Pliocene5.333 - 2.588Italy Sphyrna prisca (96761)
Pliocene5.333 - 2.588Angola Sphyrna zygaena (154111)
Late/Upper Pliocene3.6 - 2.588Colombia (La Guajira) Sphyrnidae sp. (166508)
Early/Lower Pleistocene2.588 - 0.781Japan (Kanagawa) Sphyrna zygaena (161454)
Pleistocene2.588 - 0.0117Ecuador Sphyrna media (97639)
Late/Upper Pleistocene (interglacial)0.126 - 0.0117USA (Georgia) Sphyrna tiburo (20604)