Basic info Taxonomic history Classification Relationships
Morphology Ecology and taphonomy External Literature Search Age range and collections

Saurischia (saurischian)

Reptilia -

Saurischia was named by Seeley (1888). It is extant. It was considered monophyletic by Nesbitt (2011).

It was synonymized subjectively with Praepubici by Jaekel (1910) and Jaekel (1911); it was reranked as the suborder Saurischia by Parks (1935) and Gorscak et al. (2014); it was reranked as the subclass Saurischia by Bakker and Galton (1974); it was reranked as the unranked clade Saurischia by Swinton (1934), Gauthier and Padian (1985), Gauthier (1986), Brinkman and Sues (1987), Gauthier et al. (1989), Novas (1989), Rowe (1989), Benton (1990), Novas (1992), Novas (1992), Novas (1993), Sereno et al. (1993), Novas (1996), Sereno (1997), Sereno (1998), Sereno (1999), Maisch and Matzke (2003), Langer (2004), Irmis (2005), Langer and Benton (2006), Ezcurra (2006), Martínez and Alcober (2009), Nesbitt (2011), Cabreira et al. (2011), Novas et al. (2011), Taylor et al. (2011), You et al. (2014), Lu and Brusatte (2015), Sereno (2017), Longrich et al. (2017), Apaldetti et al. (2018), Martz and Small (2019), Pacheco et al. (2019) and Zahner and Brinkmann (2019).

It was assigned to Archosauromorpha by Huene (1948); to Archosauromorpha by Huene (1954); to Archosauria by Kuhn (1966); to Dinosauria by Bakker and Galton (1974); to Reptilia by Seeley (1888), Lull (1924), Parks (1928), Kuhn (1946), Estes (1964), del Corro (1975), Madsen and Miller (1979) and Benton (1979); to Archosauria by Haughton and Brink (1954), Parsch (1963), Kuhn (1964), Romer (1966), Haubold (1971), Thulborn (1975) and Thurmond and Jones (1981); to Archosauria by Roxo (1937), Romer (1956), Ostrom (1980) and Carroll (1988); to Eudinosauria by Novas (1992) and Novas (1992); to Dinosauria by Nopcsa (1923), Nopcsa (1928), Tatarinov (1964) and Gao and Liu (2005); to Dinosauria by Seeley (1888), Cope (1889), Cope (1891), Cope (1898), Huene (1909), Lull (1915), Swinton (1934), Parks (1935), Cooper (1981), Zhao (1983), Long and Murry (1995), Peng et al. (2001), You et al. (2014) and Gorscak et al. (2014); and to Dinosauria by Gauthier and Padian (1985), Gauthier (1986), Brinkman and Sues (1987), Gauthier et al. (1989), Novas (1989), Rowe (1989), Benton (1990), Novas (1993), Sereno et al. (1993), Novas (1996), Sereno (1997), Sereno (1998), Sereno (1999), Maisch and Matzke (2003), Langer (2004), Irmis (2005), Langer and Benton (2006), Ezcurra (2006), Martínez and Alcober (2009), Nesbitt (2011), Cabreira et al. (2011), Novas et al. (2011), Taylor et al. (2011), Lu and Brusatte (2015), Sereno (2017), Longrich et al. (2017), Apaldetti et al. (2018), Martz and Small (2019), Pacheco et al. (2019) and Zahner and Brinkmann (2019).

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1845Pachypodes Meyer p. 281
1882Thecospondylus Seeley
1882Thecospondylus horneri Seeley p. 457
1888Thecospondylus Lydekker pp. 152-153
1888Thecospondylus horneri Lydekker p. 153
1888Saurischia Seeley
1888Thecospondylus horneri Seeley p. 79
1889Saurischia Cope p. 16
1890Thecospondylus horneri Woodward and Sherborn p. 292
1890Thecospondylus Zittel p. 732
1891Saurischia Cope p. 43
1898Saurischia Cope p. 68
1900Thecospondylus Van Den Broeck p. 83
1900Thecospondylus horneri Van Den Broeck p. 83
1909Saurischia Huene p. 13
1909Thecospondylus Huene p. 13
1911Thecospondylus von Zittel p. 280
1914Thecospondylus Huene p. 34
1915Saurischia Lull p. 117
1920Thecospondylus Huene p. 162
1923Saurischia Nopcsa p. 125
1924Saurischia Lull p. 228
1926Thecocoelurus horneri Huene p. 85
1926Thecospondylus Huene p. 85
1928Saurischia Nopcsa p. 182
1928Thecospondylus Nopcsa p. 183
1928Saurischia Parks p. 3
1934Saurischia Swinton p. 30
1935Saurischia Parks p. 183
1937Saurischia Roxo p. 44
1946Saurischia Kuhn p. 65
1948Saurischia Huene p. 88
1954Saurischia Haughton and Brink p. 4
1954Saurischia Huene p. 44
1956Saurischia Romer p. 607
1956Thecospondylus Romer p. 612
1963Saurischia Parsch p. 4
1964Saurischia Estes p. 142
1964Saurischia Kuhn p. 312
1964Saurischia Tatarinov p. 529
1964Thecospondylus Tatarinov p. 533
1966Saurischia Kuhn p. 88
1966Saurischia Romer p. 369
1966Thecospondylus Romer p. 369
1970Thecospondylus Steel p. 17
1970Thecospondylus horneri Steel p. 17
1971Saurischia Haubold p. 63
1974Saurischia Bakker and Galton p. 171
1975Saurischia Thulborn p. 267
1975Saurischia del Corro p. 231
1979Saurischia Benton p. 142
1979Saurischia Madsen and Miller p. 5
1980Saurischia Ostrom p. 21
1981Saurischia Cooper p. 694
1981Saurischia Thurmond and Jones p. 143
1983Saurischia Zhao p. 295
1985Saurischia Gauthier and Padian pp. 189-190 fig. 1
1986Saurischia Gauthier p. 14
1987Saurischia Brinkman and Sues p. 502 fig. 7
1988Saurischia Carroll
1989Saurischia Gauthier et al. p. 346
1989Saurischia Novas p. 686 fig. 2
1989Saurischia Rowe
1990Saurischia Benton p. 19
1992Saurischia Novas pp. 59-60 fig. 6
1993Saurischia Novas p. 110
1993Saurischia Sereno et al. p. 65 fig. 2
1995Saurischia Long and Murry p. 171
1996Saurischia Novas p. 737 fig. 10
1997Saurischia Sereno p. 444
1998Saurischia Sereno p. 63
1999Saurischia Sereno p. 2138 fig. 2
2001Saurischia Peng et al. p. 36
2003Saurischia Maisch and Matzke p. 282
2004Saurischia Langer p. 27
2005Saurischia Gao and Liu p. 313
2005Saurischia Irmis p. 81
2006Saurischia Ezcurra p. 657 fig. 3
2006Saurischia Langer and Benton pp. 345-347 fig. 15
2009Saurischia Martínez and Alcober p. 11 fig. 10
2011Saurischia Cabreira et al. p. 1036
2011Saurischia Nesbitt p. 211 fig. 52
2011Saurischia Novas et al. p. 341 fig. 4
2011Saurischia Taylor et al. p. 78
2014Saurischia Gorscak et al.
2014Saurischia You et al.
2015Saurischia Lu and Brusatte
2017Saurischia Longrich et al.
2017Saurischia Sereno
2018Saurischia Apaldetti et al.
2019Saurischia Martz and Small p. 54 fig. 23
2019Saurischia Pacheco et al.
2019Saurischia Zahner and Brinkmann

Is something missing? Join the Paleobiology Database and enter the data

phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
SauriaGauthier 1984
Archosauromorpha(Huene 1946)
ArchosauriformesGauthier 1986

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

R. S. Lull 1924dinosaurs with triradiate pelvis resembing that of crocodiles, except that the publs forms part of acetabular boundary; skull small, with preorbital fenestra, carried at right angles to neck; large vacuity through mandible, as in crocodiles; marginal socketed teeth compressed and either knife-like, with serrated margins, or pencil-like, present in anterior portion of mouth and generally along its sides as well; no predentary bone; no calcified (ossified) tendons preserved in vertebral column.
B. F. Nopcsa 1928pubes directed forwards, pubic protuberance of ilium long
F. v. Huene 1948They represent an orthogenetic continuation of certain Pseudosuchia without break, systematic separation is artificial, but preferable for practical reasons. Open acetabulum; no armature; hind legs stronger than in Pseudosuchians and skull smaller; shoulder girdle shifted backward and first caudal added to sacrum; about 25 presacrals as in normal Thecodonts; in shoulder girdle secondary elements disappearing. Upper Triassic to Upper Cretaceous.
S. J. Nesbitt 2011The most inclusive clade containing Passer domesticus Linnaeus, 1758, and Saltasaurus loricatus Bonaparte and Powell, 1980, but not Triceratops horridus (Marsh, 1889)
No measurements are available
Composition: phosphaticsubp
Maximum body mass: 100000 kgg
Minimum body mass: 300 gg
Environment: terrestrialsubc
Locomotion: actively mobilec
Created: 2017-04-17 15:16:03
Modified: 2017-04-17 15:16:03
Source: g = genus, subc = subclass, c = class, subp = subphylum
References: Peczkis 1995, Carroll 1988, Hendy et al. 2009

Age range

Maximum range based only on fossils: base of the Smithian to the top of the Holocene or 251.30000 to 0.00000 Ma
Minimum age of oldest fossil (stem group age): 247.2 Ma

Collections (8210 total)

Oldest occurrences

Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Early/Lower Triassic252.17 - 247.2United Kingdom (England) Coelurosaurichnus sp. A, Coelurosaurichnus sp. B, Coelurosaurichnus ziegelangernensis (184045)
Smithian251.3 - 247.2USA (Utah) Grallator sp., Eubrontes sp. (105542)
Anisian247.2 - 242.0Spain (Castilla-La Mancha) Coelurosaurichnus perriauxi (74513)
Anisian247.2 - 242.0France (Languedoc-Rousillon) Sphingopus ferox (199936)
Anisian247.2 - 242.0Germany Thecodontosaurus latespinatus (137641)
Anisian247.2 - 242.0Germany (Saxony-Anhalt) Theropoda indet. (138123)
Anisian247.2 - 242.0United Kingdom (England) Deuterotetrapous plancus (186039) Swinnertonichnus mapperleyensis (83053)
Anisian247.2 - 242.0Poland (Opole) Zanclodon silesiacus (96435)
Anisian247.2 - 242.0Poland (Swietoryzskie) Sphingopus sp. (175801)
Illyrian247.2 - 242.0Italy (Bolzano) Sphingopus ladinicus (196816)
Anisian - Ladinian247.2 - 237.0France (Bourgogne-Franche-Comté) Anchisauripus bibractensis (62183 199909) Anchisauripus sp., Coelurosaurichnus perriauxi, Anchisauripus bibractensis, Sphingopus ferox (62182) Anchisauripus sp., Coelurosaurichnus sp., Anchisauripus bibractensis, Coelurosaurichnus largentierensis (68226) Coelurosaurichnus palissyi (31312) Coelurosaurichnus perriauxi, Anchisauripus bibractensis (68906) Coelurosaurichnus perriauxi, Coelurosaurichnus palissyi (68223) Coelurosaurichnus sp., Anchisauripus bibractensis (199928) Coelurosaurichnus sp., Coelurosaurichnus perriauxi, Sphingopus ferox, Anchisauripus sp. (28462) Sphingopus ferox (199910) Sphingopus ferox, Dinosauria indet. (199911) Sphingopus sp. (199912) Sphingopus sp., Anchisauripus bibractensis, Coelurosaurichnus palissyi (68222) Sphingopus sp., Sphingopus ferox, Dinosauria indet., Dinosauria indet. (24834)
Anisian - Ladinian247.2 - 237.0Germany (Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes) Coelurosaurichnus largentierensis, Sphingopus ferox (192151)
Anisian - Ladinian247.2 - 237.0France (Rhône-Alpes) Grallator sp. (199929)
Anisian - Ladinian247.2 - 237.0France (Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes) Anchisauripus sp., Coelurosaurichnus sp. (31310) Sphingopus ferox (201284)
Anisian - Ladinian247.2 - 237.0France (Saône-et-Loire) Coelurosaurichnus sp., Coelurosaurichnus palyssii (36226)
Middle Triassic247.2 - 237.0Lesotho (Mokhotlong) Trichristolopus dubius (206537)
Middle Triassic247.2 - 237.0France (Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes) Sphingopus ferox (201285)
Middle Triassic247.2 - 237.0France (Bourgogne-Franche-Comté) Anchisauripus bibractensis, Sphingopus ferox, Coelurosaurichnus perriauxi (28092) Sphingopus ferox (201286)
Middle Triassic247.2 - 237.0Germany (Baden-Württemberg) Thecodontosaurus latespinatus (187582)
Middle Triassic247.2 - 237.0Argentina (Mendoza) Tetrasauropus sp. (59670)