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Cormohipparion ingenuum

Mammalia - Perissodactyla - Equidae

Taxonomy
Hippotherium ingenuum was named by Leidy (1885). Its type specimen is USNM 3306, a set of teeth (two superior molar teeth of the left side), and it is a 3D body fossil. Its type locality is Mixson's Bone Bed, which is in a Hemphillian terrestrial horizon in the Alachua Formation of Florida.

It was synonymized subjectively with Hippotherium gratum by Cope (1889) and Lucas (1896); it was recombined as Hipparion ingenuum by Spencer (1895), Gidley (1907), Osborn (1918), Hay (1930) and Simpson (1930); it was synonymized subjectively with Hipparion gratum by Hay (1902); it was recombined as Neohipparion ingenuum by Matthew (1909); it was recombined as Nannippus ingenuus by Stirton (1940), Quinn (1955), Forsten (1975), MacFadden (1984) and MacFadden (1998); it was considered a nomen dubium by Macdonald (1992); it was recombined as Cormohipparion ingenuum by Hulbert (1988), Woodburne (2007) and May (2019).

Synonyms
Synonymy list
YearName and author
1885Hippotherium ingenuum Leidy
1893Protohippus lenticularis Cope p. 41
1893Merychippus lenticularis Cummins
1895Hipparion ingenuum Spencer
1902Merychippus lenticularis Hay p. 617
1903Neohipparion lenticularis Gidley
1905Merychippus lenticularis Trouessart
1907Hipparion ingenuum Gidley p. 902
1907Hipparion lenticulare Gidley p. 915
1909Neohipparion ingenuum Matthew
1909Neohipparion lenticularis Matthew
1918Hipparion lenticulare Matthew
1918Hipparion lenticulare Osborn p. 184 figs. Plates 32.2, 33.5,6,7. Text Figs. 147, 148 148a.
1918Hipparion ingenuum Osborn p. 191 figs. Text Fig. 154
1924Hipparion lenticulare Matthew
1930Hipparion ingenuum Hay
1930Hipparion lenticulare Hay
1930Hipparion lenticulare Matthew and Stirton
1930Hipparion ingenuum Simpson
1936Nannippus lenticulare Hesse p. 67
1940Nannippus ingenuus Stirton p. 186
1940Nannippus lenticularis Stirton p. 186
1941Nannippus lenticularis Savage
1950Nannippus lenticularis Lance
1955Nannippus ingenuus Quinn
1973Nannippus lenticularis Dalquest and Donovan
1975Nannippus ingenuus Forsten
1981Nannippus lenticularis Thurmond and Jones p. 185
1983Nannippus lenticularis Dalquest p. 31
1984Nannippus ingenuus MacFadden p. 126 figs. 90-92, 97-102, 105, 148, 150
1988Cormohipparion ingenuum Hulbert, Jr.
1988Nannippus lenticularis Hulbert, Jr. p. 264
1998Nannippus ingenuus MacFadden p. 549
2007Hippotherium ingenuum Alroy
2007Cormohipparion ingenuum Woodburne
2019Cormohipparion ingenuum May

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
Synapsida()
Therapsida()
infraorderCynodontia()
RankNameAuthor
Epicynodontia
infraorderEucynodontia
Probainognathia
Mammaliamorpha
Mammaliaformes
classMammalia
subclassTribosphenida()
infraclassEutheria()
Placentalia
orderPerissodactyla()
suborderLophodontomorpha
infraorderEuperissodactyla
Hippomorpha
superfamilyEquoidea
familyEquidae
subfamilyEquinaeSteinmann and Döderlein 1890
tribeHipparionini
genusCormohipparion
speciesingenuum(Leidy 1885)

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
ReferenceDiagnosis
H. F. Osborn 1918(Leidy, 1885, Gidley, 1907) (1) An animal little more than half the size of the domestic horse, E.
cahallus. (2) Foldings of the metaloph within the pre- and postfossettes, four anterior, three posterior; (3) single anterior and posterior folds in pre- and postfossette respectively; (4) prominent crochet fold and pli caballin; (5) internal islet [protocone] elliptical instead of circular. (Gidley) (6) An animal little larger than the type of H. venustum Leidy; (7) difl'ering from H. venustum only in the characters pointed out by Leidy, which are slight and of little value. (8) Widely separated in size, in the form of the protocone, and in the enamel plications from H.-montezuma.
H. F. Osborn 1918 (Hipparion lenticulare)(Cope, 1893, Gidley, 1907)·(I) by the absolutely len-
ticular section of the protocone, which presents acute angles anteriorly and posteriorly and convex surfaces internally and externally; (2) enamel borders of fossettes moder- ately complex [relatively simple], in type only three folds projecting into prefossette and three folds [in paratype] into postfossette; (3) crown quite strongly curved transversely. (4) An animal about the size of Hippodon speciosus Leidy.
Measurements
No measurements are available
Composition: phosphaticsubp
Environment: terrestrialsubc
Locomotion: actively mobilec
Life habit: ground dwellingsubf
Diet: grazerg
Diet 2: browserg
Created: 2009-01-04 10:23:13
Modified: 2009-01-04 12:58:34
Source: g = genus, subf = subfamily, subc = subclass, c = class, subp = subphylum
References: MacFadden and Cerling 1996, Carroll 1988, Hendy et al. 2009, Ji et al. 2002, MacFadden 1998

Age range: base of the Langhian to the top of the Miocene or 15.97000 to 5.33300 Ma

Collections (31 total)


Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Miocene23.03 - 5.333Honduras Cormohipparion ingenuum (18732 18739 18750)
Miocene23.03 - 5.333USA (Florida) Cormohipparion ingenuum (18501 18521 18533 18534 18547 18568 18574 18578 18600) Hipparion ingenuum (18544)
Miocene23.03 - 5.333USA (Texas) Cormohipparion ingenuum (18683 18687)
Langhian15.97 - 13.82USA (Florida) Cormohipparion ingenuum (18569)
Clarendonian13.6 - 10.3USA (Florida) Cormohipparion ingenuum (18588)
Clarendonian13.6 - 10.3USA (Texas) Cormohipparion ingenuum (18623)
Early/Lower Clarendonian13.6 - 10.3USA (Florida) Cormohipparion ingenuum (18536 161375)
Late/Upper Clarendonian13.6 - 10.3USA (Florida) Cormohipparion ingenuum (18554)
Hemphillian10.3 - 4.9USA (Texas) Protohippus lenticularis (18175)
Hemphillian10.3 - 4.9USA (Florida) Cormohipparion ingenuum (18529 18560 18581 18602) Cormohipparion sp. (18601) Hipparion ingenuum (type locality: 18563) Hipparion ingenuum, Cormohipparion ingenuum (18556)
early Early Hemphillian - late Early Hemphillian10.3 - 4.9USA (Florida) Cormohipparion ingenuum (18539)
late Early Hemphillian10.3 - 4.9USA (Florida) Cormohipparion ingenuum (18552)