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Equidae (horse)

Mammalia - Perissodactyla - Equidae

Discussion

The odd-toed ungulate family Equidae includes all living and fossil horses. It spread throughout the northern hemisphere shortly after it originated in the earliest Eocene and reached Africa by the late Miocene. It was diverse and abundant in North America throughout the Cenozoic, and several subclades including the low-crowned anchitheriines, the high-crowned hipparionines, and the modern genus Equus emigrated to the Old World at different times.

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Synonymy list
YearName and author
1821Equidae Gray p. 307
1825Equidae Gray p. 342
1850Equidae Bonaparte p. 1
1873Equidae Leidy p. 321
1881Equidae Cope p. 400
1883Equidae Flower p. 185
1889Equidae Cope p. 876
1891Equidae Flower and Lydekker p. 90
1902Equidae Hay p. 608
1908Equidae Lambe
1950Equidae Lance
1955Equidae Quinn
1957Equidae Quinn p. 10
1958Equidae Mooser p. 360
1966Equidae Johnson p. 80
1968Equidae Mooser p. 1
1980Equidae Kurten and Anderson p. 283
1981Equidae Thurmond and Jones p. 183
1986Equidae MacFadden p. 467
1988Equidae Carroll
1989Equidae Prothero and Schoch p. 531
1991Equidae Baskin p. 999
1991Equidae Nowak
2002Equidae Froehlich p. 159 fig. 1
2004Equidae Hooker and Dashzeveg p. 1374
2006Equidae Franzen
2006Equidae Hulbert and Whitmore p. 13
2009Equidae MacFadden
2012Equidae Rose et al.
2014Equidae Ferrusquía-Villafranca et al. p. 204
2015Equidae Dos Santos Avilla et al. pp. 925909-3
2018Equidae Eshelman et al. p. 8

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
Synapsida()
RankNameAuthor
Therapsida()
infraorderCynodontia()
Epicynodontia
infraorderEucynodontia
Probainognathia
Mammaliamorpha
Mammaliaformes
classMammalia
subclassTribosphenida()
infraclassEutheria()
Placentalia
orderPerissodactyla()
suborderLophodontomorpha
infraorderEuperissodactyla
Hippomorpha
superfamilyEquoidea
familyEquidae
familyEquidae

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
No diagnoses are available
Measurements
No measurements are available
Composition: phosphaticsubp
Maximum body mass: 10 kgs
Minimum body mass: 10 kgs
Body mass estimate: 10 kg
Environment: terrestrialsubc
Locomotion: actively mobilec
Life habit: ground dwellingf
Diet: browserf
Comments: modern Equus is a grazer (Nowak 1999), but the primitive condition for the family is browsingf
Created: 2005-06-08 10:11:09
Modified: 2005-08-31 16:55:50
Source: s = species, f = family, subc = subclass, c = class, subp = subphylum
References: Nowak 1991, Legendre 1988, Carroll 1988, Hendy et al. 2009, Ji et al. 2002

Age range

Maximum range based only on fossils: base of the Graybullian to the top of the Holocene or 55.80000 to 0.00000 Ma
Minimum age of oldest fossil (stem group age): 50.3 Ma

Collections (4118 total)

Oldest occurrences

Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Ypresian56.0 - 47.8France (Oise) Pliolophus quesnoyensis (68174)
Ypresian56.0 - 47.8France (Marne) Pliolophus vulpiceps (35537)
Ypresian56.0 - 47.8United Kingdom (England) Hyracotherium vulpiceps (13299) Hyracotherium vulpiceps, Hyracotherium sp. (38868)
Ypresian56.0 - 47.8Belgium (Hainaut) Sifrhippus sandrae (87947)
Eocene56.0 - 33.9Germany (Sachsen-Anhalt) Propalaeotherium parvulum (45521 45738 45798 45799)
Graybullian55.8 - 50.3USA (Wyoming) Hyracotherium cristatum, Hyracotherium pernix (15701) Hyracotherium sp. (15875)
Lostcabinian55.8 - 50.3USA (Wyoming) Hyracotherium venticolum (15998 16000 16005) Hyracotherium venticolum, Hyracotherium craspedotum (15997) Orohippus sp. (15901 15945) Xenicohippus craspedotum, Hyracotherium venticolum (15999)
Lysitean - Lostcabinian55.8 - 50.3USA (Wyoming) Hyracotherium sp. (15451)
Wasatchian55.8 - 50.3USA (Wyoming) Arenahippus aemulor (15790 15826 15835) Arenahippus grangeri (15489 15497 15736 15747 15773 15884 16039 16040 16041 16042 16049 16050) Arenahippus pernix (118482) Arenahippus pernix, Hyracotherium sp. (15673) Eohippus index (15483) Equidae indet. (15841) Equidae indet., Protorohippus venticolum (186932 186933 186935 186936 186937 186939 186944 186946 186952) Equidae indet., Xenicohippus craspedotum (186931 186934) Hyracotherium aemulor (15511 15513 15514 15516 15517 15518 15520 15522 15523 15524 15531 15545 15728 15741 15742 15743 15744 15745 15757 15758 15767 15770 15798 15799 15800 15801 15802 15804 15810 15827 15828 15829 46641 46656 46666 46667 46672 46673 46674 46675 46686 46687 46688 46689 46693 46694 46697 46698 46721 46724 46769 46770 46771 46772 46773 46775 46776 46777 46778 46779 46782 46784 46789 46791 46792 46794 46795 46797 46798 46799 46800 46801 46805 46814 46815 46816 46817 46818 46819 46828 46830 46831 46832 46833 46834 46835 46836 46837 46838 46839 46840 46841 46844 46852) Hyracotherium aemulor, Hyracotherium grangeri (15510 15512 15532 15536 15538 15541 15542 15544 15546 15548 15549 46807 46809) Hyracotherium aemulor, Hyracotherium grangeri, Hyracotherium index (15551 15553 15554) Hyracotherium angustidens (15491 15493 15504 15515 15879 15912 15932 16055) Hyracotherium cristatum, Hyracotherium grangeri, Hyracotherium pernix (46692) Hyracotherium cristatum, Hyracotherium pernix (15694 46682 46683 46696 46699 46700 46701 46703 46704 46707 46711 46712 46714 46718 46729 46733 46734 46736 46740 46741 46742 46745 46746 46747 46748 46754 46755 46760 46761 46764 46767 46825 46826 46827 46847 46849) Hyracotherium grangeri (15458 15495 15503 15505 15507 15509 15540 15543 15547 15550 15560 15566 15568 15726 15727 15730 15731 15732 15733 15734 15735 15737 15738 15739 15740 15746 15748 15749 15750 15751 15752 15753 15754 15755 15762 15763 15764 15765 15766 15772 15774 15775 15777 15778 15779 15781 15786 15787 15788 15791 15792 15793 15794 15795 15796 15797 15808 15809 15813 15815 15816 15818 15819 15820 15821 15822 15824 15825 15944 46636 46637 46638 46639 46640 46642 46643 46644 46645 46646 46647 46648 46650 46652 46657 46659 46660 46661 46662 46664 46668 46669 46670 46671 46680 46681 46684 46685 46690 46691 46725 46726 46727 46744 46768 46774 46780 46781 46783 46785 46786 46787 46788 46790 46793 46803 46804 46806 46808 46812 46813 46821 46822 46823 46824) Hyracotherium grangeri, Hyracotherium index (15555) Hyracotherium grangeri, Hyracotherium index, Hyracotherium pernix (15556 15557) Hyracotherium grangeri, Hyracotherium pernix (15558 15567) Hyracotherium grangeri, Hyracotherium sandrae (15759 15761) Hyracotherium index (15937 15964 16056) Hyracotherium index, Hyracotherium venticolum, Orohippus proteros (15454) Hyracotherium montanum (15581) Hyracotherium pernix (15455 15564 15768 15769 15782 15785 15803 15805 15806 15807 15811 15812 15814 46695 46702 46705 46706 46709 46710 46713 46715 46716 46717 46719 46720 46728 46730 46731 46732 46735 46738 46739 46743 46749 46753 46756 46757 46758 46759 46762 46763 46765 46766 46810 46811 46820 46843 46845 46846 46848 46851) Hyracotherium sandrae (15760 15771 15780) Hyracotherium sp. (15462 15596 15597 15657 15720 15721 15722 15723 15724 15729 15756 15842 15843 15846 15891 15892 15893 15894 15900 15914 15931 15933 15934 15936 15963 16008 16060 16062 16074) Hyracotherium vasacciense (15456 15661) Hyracotherium venticolum (15904 15906 15908 15927 15928 15946) Orohippus proteros (15902) Orohippus sp. (15942) Protorohippus venticolum (186942 186943 186945 186947 186948 186951) Protorohippus venticolum, Hyracotherium vasacciense (15662) Xenicohippus craspedotum (186950) Xenicohippus grangeri (15575 15576 15578)
Wasatchian55.8 - 50.3USA (Colorado) Arenahippus grangeri (15450 15480) Eohippus angustidens, Xenicohippus osborni (15655) Hyracotherium angustidens (15725 15845 15887) Hyracotherium craspedotum (15293) Hyracotherium grangeri (15429) Hyracotherium sp. (15391 15836 15854 15855 15859 15860 15861 15862 15864 15868 15869 15870 15871 15873 15874) Hyracotherium vasacciense (15649) Hyracotherium vasacciense, Hyracotherium craspedotum (15652) Xenicohippus grangeri (15225 15290 15295 15362 15370 15406) Xenicohippus osborni (15399 15404) Xenicohippus sp. (15309) Xenicohippus sp., Xenicohippus osborni (15402)
Wasatchian55.8 - 50.3USA (North Dakota) Hyracotherium sp. (15895)
Wasatchian55.8 - 50.3USA (Utah) Hyracotherium sp. (15716)
Wasatchian55.8 - 50.3Canada (Northwest Territories) Equidae indet. (15583)
Wasatchian55.8 - 50.3USA (Texas) Hyracotherium angustidens (15838)
Wasatchian55.8 - 50.3USA (New Mexico) Hyracotherium angustidens (15598 15607 15611) Hyracotherium sp. (15443 15446 15447 15448 15449 15453 15459 15481) Hyracotherium vasacciense, Xenicohippus sp. (15663) Xenicohippus osborni, Hipposyus sp. (15430) Xenicohippus sp. (15441)
Wasatchian55.8 - 50.3Mexico (Baja California) Eohippus angustidens, Hyracotherium sp. (15671)
Early/Lower Eocene55.8 - 48.6United Kingdom (England) Pliolophus vulpiceps (68434)
Early/Lower Eocene55.8 - 48.6USA (Wyoming) Hyracotherium aemulor (15592 15683 15699 15709) Hyracotherium craspedotum (15690) Hyracotherium cristatum, Hyracotherium pernix (15680 15684 15692 15695 15697 15700 15702 15703 15704 15705 15706 15707) Hyracotherium grangeri (15586 15587 15588 15589 15590 15594 15679) Hyracotherium pernix (15681 15685 15687 15696 15698) Hyracotherium sandrae (15591 154251 154253 154254 154255 154257 154258 154259 154263 154268 154269 154270 154271 154272 154274 154280 154281 154282)
Early/Lower Eocene55.8 - 48.6Germany (Sachsen-Anhalt) Propalaeotherium parvulum (45749)
Early/Lower Eocene55.8 - 48.6China (Hunan) Orientolophus hengdongensis (87239)