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Perissodactyla (odd-toed ungulate)

Mammalia - Perissodactyla

Taxonomy
Perissodactyla was named by Owen (1848) [Owen does not give a rank in his original description of Perissodactyla. Owen does not give a rank in his original description of Perissodactyla. Owen does not give a rank in his original description of Perissodactyla.]. It is extant.

It was reranked as the suborder Perissodactyla by Gadow (1898), Hay (1902), Lambe (1908) and Gregory (1910); it was reranked as the order Perissodactyla by Leidy (1873), Flower (1883), Ferrusquia-Villafranca (1969), McKenna (1975), Thurmond and Jones (1981), Schoch (1984), Kumar and Sahni (1985), Hooker (1986), MacFadden (1986), Carroll (1988), Prothero and Schoch (1989), Nowak (1991), Madsen et al. (2001), Prothero (2005), Symeonidis et al. (2006), Hulbert and Whitmore (2006), MacFadden (2009), Asher and Helgen (2010), Cooper et al. (2014) and Ferrusquía-Villafranca et al. (2014).

It was assigned to Diplarthra by Cope (1889) and Cope (1891); to Ungulata by Owen (1848), Flower (1883) and Ameghino (1894); to Ungulata by Flower and Lydekker (1891), Gadow (1898), Hay (1902) and Lambe (1908); to Mesaxonia by Gregory (1910); to Phenacodonta by McKenna (1975); to Eutheria by Hooker (1986); to Altungulata by Prothero and Schoch (1989); to Eutheria by Carroll (1988) and Nowak (1991); to Zooamata by Waddell et al. (1999); to Laurasiatheria by Madsen et al. (2001); to Euungulata by Waddell et al. (2001) and Asher and Helgen (2010); to Placentalia by Cooper et al. (2014); and to Mammalia by Leidy (1873), Ferrusquia-Villafranca (1969), Thurmond and Jones (1981), Schoch (1984), Kumar and Sahni (1985), MacFadden (1986), Prothero (2005), Symeonidis et al. (2006), Hulbert and Whitmore (2006), MacFadden (2009) and Ferrusquía-Villafranca et al. (2014).

Synonyms
Synonymy list
YearName and author
1848Perissodactyla Owen p. 131
1873Perissodactyla Leidy p. 321
1883Perissodactyla Flower p. 185
1889Perissodactyla Cope p. 876
1891Perissodactyla Cope p. 8
1891Perissodactyla Flower and Lydekker p. 90
1894Perissodactyla Ameghino p. 13
1897Hippopotamus iravaticus Noetling
1898Perissodactyla Gadow p. 46
1902Perissodactyla Hay p. 607
1908Perissodactyla Lambe
1910Perissodactyla Gregory p. 466
1969Perissodactyla Ferrusquia-Villafranca
1975Perissodactyla McKenna p. 43
1981Perissodactyla Thurmond and Jones p. 182
1984Perissodactyla Schoch p. 3
1985Perissodactyla Kumar and Sahni p. 153
1986Perissodactyla Hooker p. 342
1986Perissodactyla MacFadden p. 467
1988Perissodactyla Carroll
1989Perissodactyla Prothero and Schoch p. 530
1991Perissodactyla Nowak
1997Selenida McKenna and Bell
1999Perissodactyla Waddell et al. p. 3
2001Perissodactyla Madsen et al. p. 610
2001Perissodactyla Waddell et al. p. 148
2005Perissodactyla Prothero
2006Perissodactyla Hulbert and Whitmore p. 13
2006Perissodactyla Symeonidis et al.
2009Perissodactyla MacFadden
2010Perissodactyla Asher and Helgen p. 3 figs. Figure 1
2014Perissodactyla Cooper et al. p. 3 fig. 3
2014Perissodactyla Ferrusquía-Villafranca et al. p. 204

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
RankNameAuthor
Amniota
Synapsida()
Therapsida()
infraorderCynodontia()
Epicynodontia
infraorderEucynodontia
Probainognathia
Mammaliamorpha
Mammaliaformes
classMammalia
subclassTribosphenida()
infraclassEutheria()
Placentalia
orderPerissodactyla()
orderPerissodactyla()

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
No diagnoses are available
Measurements
No measurements are available
Composition: phosphaticsubp
Maximum body mass: 1000 kgg
Minimum body mass: 10 kgs
Environment: terrestrialsubc
Locomotion: actively mobilec
Life habit: ground dwellingo
Diet: browsero
Diet 2: grazero
Created: 2005-08-26 13:57:26
Modified: 2005-08-26 15:57:26
Source: s = species, g = genus, o = order, subc = subclass, c = class, subp = subphylum
References: Legendre 1988, Benton 1996, Nowak 1999, Carroll 1988, Hendy et al. 2009, Ji et al. 2002

Age range

Maximum range based only on fossils: base of the Late/Upper Paleocene to the top of the Holocene or 58.70000 to 0.00000 Ma
Minimum age of oldest fossil (stem group age): 56.0 Ma

Collections (6235 total)

Oldest occurrences

Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Thanetian59.2 - 56.0Spain (Cataluña) Microhyus musculus, Paschatherium dolloi (79306) Paschatherium dolloi (79304 79307) Paschatherium sp., Microhyus musculus, Paschatherium dolloi (79305)
Thanetian59.2 - 56.0Romania Paschatherium sp. (83307 138240 138241)
Thanetian59.2 - 56.0France (Champagne-Ardenne) Microhyus sp., Teilhardimys brisswalteri (68428) Paschatherium dolloi, Teilhardimys brisswalteri (87925) Teilhardimys brisswalteri (87943 137125)
Thanetian59.2 - 56.0Spain (Catalunia) Paschatherium yvettae (182623)
Late/Upper Paleocene58.7 - 55.8France (Oise) Teilhardimys musculus (166598)
Late/Upper Paleocene58.7 - 55.8China (Nei Mongol) Perissodactyla indet. (133389)
Ypresian56.0 - 47.8France (Île-de-France) Hyracotherium leporinum (68437)
Ypresian56.0 - 47.8Pakistan Nakusia shahrigensis (180564) Tapiroidea indet., Perissobune munirulhaqi (94599)
Ypresian56.0 - 47.8India (Jammu and Kashmir) Mulkrajanops maghliensis (45588)
Ypresian56.0 - 47.8France (Aude) Lophiaspis occitanicus (78236)
Ypresian56.0 - 47.8Kyrgyzstan (Osh) Deperetella ferganica (174761) Teleolophus medius, Pataecops microdon, Rhodopagus minutissimus, Eoletes tianshanicus, Lushiamynodon kirghisensis (28490)
Ypresian56.0 - 47.8France (Oise) Chowliia europea (182643 200298) Pachynolophus sp., Pliolophus quesnoyensis (68174)
Ypresian56.0 - 47.8France (Marne) Microhyus musculus, Pliolophus vulpiceps, Hyracotherium leporinum (35537)
Ypresian56.0 - 47.8France (Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur) Lophiaspis maurettei, Cymbalophus hookeri (178050)
Ypresian56.0 - 47.8United Kingdom Microhyus musculus, Teilhardimys musculus, Hyracotherium cuniculus (87950)
Ypresian56.0 - 47.8United Kingdom (England) Hyracotherium cuniculus (184228) Hyracotherium leporinum (68436 68439) Hyracotherium leporinum, Hyracotherium vulpiceps (13299) Hyracotherium vulpiceps, Hyracotherium sp. (38868) Microhyus musculus (184229) Microhyus musculus, Paschatherium dolloi, Teilhardimys musculus, Hyracotherium cuniculus, Cymbalophus cuniculus (133368)
Ypresian56.0 - 47.8Belgium (West Flanders) Equoidea indet. (68430)
Ypresian56.0 - 47.8Pakistan (Balochistan) Eotitanops pakistanensis, Balochititanops haqi (112723) Eotitanops pakistanensis, Perissobune munirulhaqi (112721) Gandheralophus minor (87933) Gandheralophus robustus (179962) Ghazijhippus talibhasani (180562) Lophialetidae indet., Eotitanops pakistanensis, Balochititanops haqi, Litolophus ghazijensis, Perissobune munirulhaqi (112719) Lophialetidae indet., Litolophus ghazijensis (179963) Perissobune intizarkhani (180538 180539 180540 180542 180544 180545 180546 180547 180550 180552 180556 180559 180560) Perissobune intizarkhani, Ghazijhippus talibhasani (180537 180548 180553 180555 180558) Perissobune intizarkhani, Perissobune munirulhaqi (180541 180543 180549 180557) Perissobune intizarkhani, Perissobune munirulhaqi, Ghazijhippus talibhasani (180551 180554) Perissobune munirulhaqi (180561)
Ypresian56.0 - 47.8Belgium (Hainaut) Pachynolophus maldani, Sifrhippus sandrae, Paschatherium yvettae, Cymbalophus cuniculus (87947)
Ypresian56.0 - 47.8India (Gujarat) Cambaytherium gracilis (180565) Cambaytherium sp. A, Cambaytherium bidens, Cambaytherium thewissi, Cambaytherium minor, Indobune vastanensis, Kalitherium marinus, Vastanolophus holbrooki (55494) Cambaytherium thewissi (180651) Cambaytherium thewissi, Cambaytherium gracilis (180566)