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Mysticeti

Mammalia - Cetacea

Taxonomy
Mysticeti was named by Cope (1891). It is extant.

It was reranked as the infraorder Mysticeti by Bouetel and Muizon (2006) and Bosselaers and Post (2010); it was reranked as the unranked clade Mysticeti by McKenna and Bell (1997), Bianucci and Landini (2007), Agnarsson and May-Collado (2008), Rice (2009), Canto et al. (2010), Geisler et al. (2011), Marx et al. (2016), Marx et al. (2016), Fordyce and Marx (2016), Marx et al. (2017), Berta (2017), Peredo et al. (2018), Peredo and Pyenson (2018), Geisler (2018) and Marx et al. (2019).

It was assigned to Autoceta by McKenna and Bell (1997); to Autoceta by Geisler and Sanders (2003); to Cetacea by Agnarsson and May-Collado (2008) and Rice (2009); to Cetacea by Canto et al. (2010); to Autoceta by Bouetel and Muizon (2006) and Bosselaers and Post (2010); to Cetacea by Scammon and Cope (1869), Cope (1890), Miller (1923), Kellogg (1928), Simpson (1945), Fraser and Purves (1960), Scheffer and Rice (1963), Harland et al. (1967), McKenna (1975), Whitmore and Sanders (1977), Baird and Horner (1979), Thurmond and Jones (1981), Mchedlidze (1984), Whitmore (1984), Barnes et al. (1985), Carroll (1988), Pilleri (1990), Vidal (1991), Benton (1993), Fordyce and Barnes (1994), Fordyce et al. (1995), Rice (1998), Bergqvist et al. (1999), Clapham and Mead (1999), Rice (2002), Sanders and Barnes (2002), Gingerich (2005), Mead and Brownell (2005), Bisconti and Varola (2006), Bisconti (2007), Steeman (2007), Otsuka and Ota (2008), Bisconti (2008) and Boessenecker and Fordyce (2015); to Cetacea by Marx and Kohno (2016); and to Neoceti by Fordyce and de Muizon (2001), Fordyce (2003), Bianucci and Landini (2007), Uhen (2010), Steeman (2010), Fitzgerald (2010), Geisler et al. (2011), Bisconti (2014), Peredo and Uhen (2016), Marx et al. (2016), Marx et al. (2016), Fordyce and Marx (2016), Buono et al. (2017), Marx et al. (2017), Bisconti et al. (2017), Berta (2017), Peredo et al. (2018), Peredo and Pyenson (2018), Tanaka et al. (2018), Geisler (2018), de Muizon et al. (2019) and Marx et al. (2019).

Synonyms
Synonymy list
YearName and author
1829Balaena cortesii Fischer p. 527
1844Balaenoptera cortesii Boitard p. 444
1851Balaena palaeatlantica Leidy pp. 308-309
1853Rorqualus cortesii Pictet p. 387
1854Balaena palaeatlantica Leidy p. 8
1855Balaena cortesii Gervais p. 338
1864Mysticete Gray
1865Rorqualus cortesii Capellini p. 11 figs. Plates 2, 3
1866Mysticete Gray p. 61
1867Eschrichtius leptocentrus Cope p. 144
1867Protobalaena Du Bus p. 573
1868Balaenoptera pusilla Cope p. 159
1868Eschrichtius pusillus Cope p. 191
1868Megaptera expansa Cope p. 193
1868Mysticete Gray p. 1
1868Plesiocetus cortesii Van Beneden and Gervais
1869Eschrichtius expansus Cope p. 11
1869Protobalaena Leidy p. 440
1869Protobalaena palaeatlantica Leidy p. 440
1869Eschrichtius expansus Leidy p. 442
1869Eschrichtius leptocentrus Leidy p. 442
1869Eschrichtius pusillus Leidy p. 442
1869Protobalaena Leidy p. 1869
1869Mysticete Scammon and Cope p. 14
1869Mysticeti Scammon and Cope p. 14
1870Mesoteras Cope p. 128
1870Mesoteras kerrianus Cope p. 128
1870Amphitera Gigoli
1870Amphitera pacifica Gigoli
1871Protobalaena Gervais p. 136
1871Mysticete Gill p. 122
1872Mysticete Gill p. 97
1872Probalaena Van Beneden p. 10
1872Burtinopsis Van Beneden p. 19
1872Burtinopsis similis Van Beneden p. 19
1873Cetotheriomorphus Brandt p. 48
1873Burtinopsis Brandt p. 160
1873Cetotheriomorphus Brandt p. 161 figs. Plate 23, Fig. 4-8
1873Mysticete Gill p. 20
1875Mesoteras kerrianus Cope p. 44
1880Burtinopsis similis Van Beneden pp. 16-17
1880Burtinopsis minutus Van Beneden p. 17
1880Plesiocetus cortesii Van Beneden and Gervais p. 288 figs. Plate 17, Figs. 4, 5
1881Cetotherium cortesii Strobel pp. 10-11 figs. Plate 1, Fig.3
1882Burtinopsis minutus Van Beneden p. 80 figs. Plates 97-102
1886Balaenoptera (Plesiocetus) cortesii Portis p. 286
1887Megaptera minuta Lydekker p. 31
1887Megaptera similis Lydekker p. 31
1888Squalodon serratus Davis p. 46 figs. Plate VII, Fig. 9
1890Mysticeti Cope p. 610
1890Cetotherium pusillum Cope p. 612
1890Mesoteras Cope p. 612
1890Cetotherium expansus Cope p. 616
1890Cetotherium leptocentrum Cope p. 616
1890Mesoteras kerrianus Cope p. 616
1891Mysticeti Cope p. 69
1891Megaptera (Burtinopsis) Newton p. 60
1891Megaptera (Burtinopsis) similis Newton p. 60
1891Megaptera (Burtinopsis) minuta Newton p. 61
1895Siphonocetus Cope p. 140
1895Siphonocetus expansus Cope p. 140
1895Ulias Cope p. 141
1895Ulias moratus Cope pp. 141-142 figs. Plate VI, Fig. 1
1895Tretulias Cope p. 143
1895Tretulias buccatus Cope pp. 143-144 figs. Plate VI, Fig. 2
1895Eschrichtius pusillus Cope p. 145
1895Cetotherium pusillum Cope p. 573
1895Tretulias buccatus Cope p. 573
1895Ulias moratus Cope p. 573
1896Cetotherium leptocentrum Cope p. 145
1896Rhegnopsis Cope p. 145
1896Rhegnopsis palaeatlantica Cope p. 145
1898Squalodon serratus Trouessart p. 1015
1898Cetotherium leptocentrum Trouessart p. 1071
1898Siphonocetus Trouessart p. 1074
1898Siphonocetus expansus Trouessart p. 1074
1898Tretulias Trouessart p. 1074
1898Tretulias buccatus Trouessart p. 1074
1898Ulias Trouessart p. 1074
1898Ulias moratus Trouessart p. 1074
1898Rhegnopsis Trouessart p. 1077
1898Rhegnopsis palaeatlantica Trouessart p. 1077
1898Megaptera minutus Trouessart p. 1084
1898Megaptera similis Trouessart p. 1084
1898Mesoteras Trouessart p. 1088
1898Mesoteras kerrianus Trouessart p. 1088
1899Aulocetus calaritanus Capellini p. 282 figs. Plate 1
1899Aulocetus lovisati Capellini p. 282 figs. Plate 2
1901Probalaena Abel p. 42
1902Mysticete Hay p. 598
1902Cetotherium leptocentrum Hay p. 599
1902Siphonocetus Hay p. 599
1902Siphonocetus expansus Hay p. 599
1902Ulias Hay p. 599
1902Ulias moratus Hay p. 599
1902Mesoteras Hay p. 600
1902Mesoteras kerrianus Hay p. 600
1902Rhegnopsis Hay p. 600
1902Rhegnopsis palaeatlanticus Hay p. 600
1902Tretulias Hay p. 600
1902Tretulias buccatus Hay p. 600
1904Siphonocetus Case p. 45
1904Siphonocetus expansus Case p. 45
1904Ulias Case p. 49
1904Ulias moratus Case p. 50
1904Tretulias Case p. 52
1904Tretulias buccatus Case p. 52
1904Burtinopsis Palmer p. 148
1904Cetotheriomorphus Palmer p. 175
1904Mesoteras Palmer p. 416
1904Probalaena Palmer p. 564
1904Protobalaena Palmer p. 581
1904Rhegnopsis Palmer p. 604
1904Siphonocetus Palmer p. 633
1904Tretulias Palmer p. 687
1904Ulias Palmer p. 700
1904Squalodon serratus Trouessart p. 756
1904Cetotherium leptocentrum Trouessart p. 779
1904Siphonocetus Trouessart p. 780
1904Siphonocetus expansus Trouessart p. 780
1904Ulias Trouessart p. 780
1904Ulias moratus Trouessart p. 780
1904Aulocetus calaritanus Trouessart p. 781
1904Aulocetus lovisati Trouessart p. 781
1904Tretulias Trouessart p. 781
1904Tretulias buccatus Trouessart p. 781
1904Balaenoptera cuvieri cortesii Trouessart p. 782
1904Rhegnopsis Trouessart p. 782
1904Rhegnopsis palaeatlanticus Trouessart p. 782
1904Amphitera Trouessart p. 785
1904Amphitera pacifica Trouessart p. 785
1904Megaptera minuta Trouessart p. 785
1904Megaptera similis Trouessart p. 785
1904Mesoteras Trouessart p. 786
1904Mesoteras kerrianus Trouessart p. 786
1912Cetotheriomorphus True p. 3
1912Mesoteras True p. 3
1912Rhegnopsis True p. 3
1912Siphonocetus True p. 3
1912Tretulias True p. 3
1912Ulias True p. 3
1918Parasqualodon serratus Chapman figs. Plate VII, Fig. 9
1923Squalodon serratus Kellogg p. 31
1923Mysticeti Miller p. 40
1925Mesoteras Zittel p. 88
1925Siphonocetus Zittel p. 88
1928Burtinopsis Kellogg p. 35 figs. Table 1
1928Cetotheriomorphus Kellogg p. 35 figs. Table 1
1928Mesoteras Kellogg p. 35 figs. Table 1
1928Mysticeti Kellogg p. 35 figs. Table 1
1928Protobalaena Kellogg p. 35 figs. Table 1
1928Rhegnopsis Kellogg p. 35 figs. Table 1
1928Siphonocetus Kellogg p. 35 figs. Table 1
1928Tretulias Kellogg p. 35 figs. Table 1
1928Ulias Kellogg p. 35 figs. Table 1
1930Mysticete Hay p. 571
1930Cetotherium leptocentrum Hay p. 572
1930Siphonocetus Hay p. 572
1930Siphonocetus expansus Hay p. 572
1930Rhegnopsis Hay p. 573
1930Rhegnopsis palaeatlanticus Hay p. 573
1930Tretulias Hay p. 573
1930Tretulias buccatus Hay p. 573
1930Ulias Hay p. 573
1930Ulias moratus Hay p. 573
1930Mesoteras Hay p. 575
1930Mesoteras kerrianus Hay p. 575
1938Cetotherium leptocentrum Abel p. 6
1938Rhegnopsis palaeatlanticus Abel p. 6
1938Mesoteras kerrianus Abel p. 7
1938Siphonocetus expansus Abel p. 7
1938Tretulias buccatus Abel p. 7
1938Ulias moratus Abel p. 7
1938Aulocetus lovisatoi Abel p. 8
1938Cetotheriopsis calaritanus Abel p. 8
1944Balaenoptera cortesii Kellogg p. 446
1944Balaenoptera floridana Kellogg p. 459 figs. Plate 6
1945Cetotheriomorphis Simpson p. 104
1945Mysticeti Simpson p. 104
1945Rhegnopsis Simpson p. 104
1945Siphonocetus Simpson p. 104
1945Tretulias Simpson p. 104
1945Ulias Simpson p. 104
1945Burtinopsis Simpson p. 105
1945Mesoteras Simpson p. 105
1945Protobalaena Simpson p. 105
1952Balaenoptera floridana Sherman p. 99
1956Mauicetus brevicollis Marples p. 579 figs. Figures 4-6
1960Mysticeti Fraser and Purves p. 112 figs. Figure 26
1961Cetotherium cortesii Cuscani Politi p. 9
1961Burtinopsis similis Cuscani Politi p. 10
1963Mysticeti Scheffer and Rice p. 9
1967Mioceta Deraniyagala p. 50
1967Mioceta bigelowi Deraniyagala p. 50
1967Mauicetus brevicollis Harland et al. p. 774
1967Mysticeti Harland et al. p. 774
1969Mioceta Deraniyagala p. 13
1969Mioceta magna Deraniyagala p. 14 figs. Plate IV, Fig. 8
1969Mioceta Deraniyagala p. 97
1969Mioceta bigelowi Deraniyagala p. 98
1969Mioceta magna Deraniyagala p. 98
1972Squalodon serratus Glaessner p. 183
1973Squalodon serratus Keyes p. 381
1973Mauicetus brevicollis Keyes p. 390
1975Mysticeti McKenna p. 43
1977Mysticeti Whitmore and Sanders p. 305
1979Mysticeti Baird and Horner p. 19
1980Mauicetus brevicollis Fordyce p. iii figs. Table 2
1980Mioceta Sahni and Mitra p. 43
1981Mysticeti Thurmond and Jones p. 197
1984Mysticeti Mchedlidze p. 5
1984Mysticeti Whitmore p. 230
1985Mysticeti Barnes et al. p. 26
1986Balaenoptera minutis Deméré p. 291
1986Balaenoptera similis Deméré p. 291
1986Balaenoptera floridana Deméré p. 294
1988Burtinopsis Carroll
1988Cetotheriomorphis Carroll
1988Mesoteras Carroll
1988Mysticeti Carroll
1988Protobalaena Carroll
1988Rhegnopsis Carroll
1988Siphonocetus Carroll
1989Crenaticeti Mitchell p. 2220
1990Mysticeti Pilleri p. 48
1991Burtinopsis Vidal p. 6
1991Mysticeti Vidal p. 6
1993Mysticeti Benton p. 762
1993Rhegnopsis Benton p. 762
1994Mysticeti Fordyce and Barnes p. 428 figs. Table 1
1995Mysticeti Fordyce et al. p. 379
1996Balaenoptera floridana Allmon et al. p. 148 figs. Table 2
1996Crenaticeti Cozzuol p. 324
1997Mysticeti McKenna and Bell p. 374
1997Siphonocetus McKenna and Bell p. 374
1997Tretulias McKenna and Bell p. 375
1997Ulias McKenna and Bell p. 375
1997Rhegnopsis McKenna and Bell p. 376
1997Burtinopsis McKenna and Bell p. 378
1997Mesoteras McKenna and Bell p. 378
1998Crenaticeti Rice
1998Mysticeti Rice
1999Mysticeti Bergqvist et al. p. 31
1999Mysticeti Clapham and Mead p. 1
2001Mysticeti Fordyce and de Muizon p. 176
2002Mysticeti Rice p. 231 figs. Table 1
2002Mysticeti Sanders and Barnes p. 353
2002Burtinopsis Sepkoski, Jr.
2002Cetotheriomorphis Sepkoski, Jr.
2002Mesoteras Sepkoski, Jr.
2002Protobalaena Sepkoski, Jr.
2002Rhegnopsis Sepkoski, Jr.
2002Siphonocetus Sepkoski, Jr.
2002Tretulias Sepkoski, Jr.
2002Ulias Sepkoski, Jr.
2003Mysticeti Fordyce p. 156 figs. Figure 9.1
2003Mysticeti Geisler and Sanders p. 27
2005Balaenoptera minutis Deméré et al. p. 105 figs. Table II
2005Balaenoptera similis Deméré et al. p. 105 figs. Table II
2005Mysticeti Gingerich p. 237 figs. Table 15.1
2005Mysticeti Mead and Brownell p. 723
2006Mysticeti Bisconti and Varola p. 449
2006Mysticeti Bouetel and Muizon p. 323
2007Mysticeti Bianucci and Landini p. 45 figs. Table 2.1
2007Mysticeti Bisconti p. 89
2007Mysticeti Steeman p. 880
2008Mysticeti Agnarsson and May-Collado p. 981 figs. Fig. 2
2008Mysticeti Bisconti p. 162
2008Mysticeti Otsuka and Ota p. 12
2008Balaenoptera floridana Uhen et al. p. 619
2009Mysticeti Rice p. 235 figs. Table 1
2010Mysticeti Bosselaers and Post p. 335
2010Mysticeti Canto et al. p. 21
2010Mysticeti Fitzgerald p. 370 figs. Table 1
2010Mysticeti Steeman p. 65
2010Mysticeti Uhen p. 208 figs. Figure 1
2011Mysticeti Geisler et al. p. 6 figs. Table 1
2014Mysticeti Bisconti
2015Mysticeti Boessenecker and Fordyce
2016Mysticeti Fordyce and Marx p. 108
2016Mysticeti Marx et al. p. 4
2016Mysticeti Marx and Kohno
2016Mysticeti Marx et al. p. 102
2016Mysticeti Peredo and Uhen
2017Mysticeti Berta p. 166
2017Mysticeti Bisconti et al. p. 7
2017Mysticeti Buono et al. p. 11
2017Mysticeti Marx et al. p. 2
2018Mysticeti Geisler p. 631
2018Mysticeti Peredo et al. p. 1
2018Mysticeti Tanaka et al. p. 297
2019Mysticeti Marx et al. p. 4
2019Mysticeti de Muizon et al. p. 405

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
RankNameAuthor
Amniota
Synapsida()
Therapsida()
infraorderCynodontia()
Epicynodontia
infraorderEucynodontia
Probainognathia
Mammaliamorpha
Mammaliaformes
classMammalia
orderCetacea
Pelagiceti
Neoceti
suborderMysticeti
suborderMysticeti

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
No diagnoses are available
Measurements
No measurements are available
Composition: hydroxyapatitesubo
Form: roller-shapedo
Ontogeny: modification of partso
Environment: marinesubo
Locomotion: actively mobileo
Life habit: aquaticsubo
Depth habitat: surfaceo
Diet: carnivoresubo
Diet 2: suspension feedersubo
Reproduction: viviparouso
Created: 2005-03-06 14:20:41
Modified: 2005-03-06 16:34:40
Source: subo = suborder, o = order
Reference: Uhen 2004

Age range

Maximum range based only on fossils: base of the Whaingaroan to the top of the Holocene or 34.30000 to 0.00000 Ma
Minimum age of oldest fossil (stem group age): 33.9 Ma

Collections (925 total)

Oldest occurrences

Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Priabonian38.0 - 33.9Antarctica Llanocetus sp. (100410) Zeuglodon sp. (45723)
Priabonian38.0 - 33.9Peru (Ica) Mysticeti indet. (112290)
Priabonian38.0 - 33.9Antarctica (Seymour Island) Llanocetus denticrenatus (100290)
Whaingaroan34.3 - 27.3New Zealand (South Island) Matapa sp. (179791)
Whaingaroan34.3 - 27.3New Zealand Cetacea indet. (74752)
Whaingaroan34.3 - 27.3New Zealand (South Canterbury) Matapa waihao (179790)
Rupelian33.9 - 28.1USA (Oregon) Aetiocetus cotylalveus (84332) Maiabalaena nesbittae (193002)
Rupelian33.9 - 28.1Australia (South Australia) Aetiocetidae indet. (45824)
Rupelian33.9 - 28.1USA (South Carolina) Coronodon havensteini (186670) Micromysticetus rothauseni (45777 45778)
Rupelian33.9 - 28.1USA (Washington) Fucaia buelli (120368) Mysticeti indet. (45805 45806 45808) Mysticeti indet., Borealodon osedax (58964)
Late/Upper Oligocene28.4 - 23.03USA (Virginia) Micromysticetus sp. (167203)
Late/Upper Oligocene28.4 - 23.03New Zealand Eomysticetidae indet. (67856)
Late/Upper Oligocene28.4 - 23.03New Zealand (South Island) Waharoa ruwhenua (173286) Waharoa sp., Waharoa ruwhenua (173285)
Late/Upper Oligocene28.4 - 23.03Japan (Yamaguchi) Mauicetus sp. (51454) Metasqualodon symmetricus (51437)
Late/Upper Oligocene - Early/Lower Miocene28.4 - 15.97Mexico (Baja California Sur) Chaeomysticeti indet. (159695)
Late/Upper Oligocene - Early/Lower Miocene28.4 - 15.97New Zealand (North Otago) Balaenopteridae indet. (87888)
Late/Upper Oligocene - Early/Lower Miocene28.4 - 15.97Australia (Victoria) Mammalodontidae indet. (51395)
Chattian28.1 - 23.03Australia (Victoria) Cetacea indet. (51393) Janjucetus hunderi (114718) Mammalodon new species 1, Mysticeti indet., Mammalodon colliveri (48647) Mammalodon sp., Mysticeti indet., Cetotheriidae indet., Mammalodontidae indet., Mammalodon colliveri (46166) Mammalodontidae indet. (51390 51392) Mysticeti indet. (51383 51391 51394)
Chattian28.1 - 23.03New Zealand (South Canterbury) Mysticeti indet. (100670)
Chattian28.1 - 23.03Malta Mammalodontidae indet. (122008)