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Camelidae (camel)

Mammalia - Ungulata - Camelidae

Synonyms
Synonymy list
YearName and author
1821Camelidae Gray p. 307
1850Camelidae Bonaparte p. 1
1856Protomeryx Leidy
1873Camelidae Leidy p. 317
1874Poebrotheriidae Cope p. 26
1883Camelidae Flower p. 184
1886Gomphotherium Cope p. 619 fig. 10
1887Eschatiidae Cope
1887Protolabididae Cope
1889Camelidae Cope p. 877
1889Eschatiidae Cope p. 877
1889Protolabididae Cope p. 877
1891Camelidae Flower and Lydekker p. 90
1891Poebrotheriidae Flower and Lydekker p. 90
1893Poebrotheriinae Zittel
1899Gomphotherium serus Douglass p. 12 figs. Plate 1
1901Protomeryx Matthew p. 422
1902Camelidae Hay p. 673
1902Poebrotheriinae Hay p. 675
1902Protomeryx Hay p. 676
1902Protomeryx serus Hay p. 676
1908Camelidae Lambe
1908Camelidae Matthew p. 561
1910Camelidae Gregory p. 466
1929Altomeryx Frick p. 107
1940Camelidae Scott p. 604
1945Alticamelinae Simpson p. 150
1945Poebrotheriinae Simpson p. 150
1945Protomeryx Simpson p. 150
1955Poebrotheriinae Gazin
1965Aepycamelinae Webb p. 37
1966Alticamelinae Maglio p. 11
1980Camelidae Kurten and Anderson p. 301
1981Camelidae Thurmond and Jones p. 188
1988Camelidae Carroll
1990Camelidae Dingus p. 13
1991Camelidae Nowak
1996Camelidae Prothero p. 610
1997Aepycamelinae McKenna and Bell
2001Camelidae Thewissen et al. p. suppl.
2004Camelidae Webb and Meachen p. 350
2005Camelidae Whistler and Webb p. 5
2006Camelidae Hulbert and Whitmore p. 6
2007Camelidae Honey
2008Camelidae Agnarsson and May-Collado p. 974 figs. Fig. 2
2009Camelidae Spaulding et al.
2015Camelidae Baskin and Thomas p. 119

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
RankNameAuthor
Synapsida()
Therapsida()
infraorderCynodontia()
Epicynodontia
infraorderEucynodontia
Probainognathia
Mammaliamorpha
Mammaliaformes
classMammalia
subclassTribosphenida()
infraclassEutheria()
orderUngulata(Linnaeus 1766)
orderArtiodactyla()
suborderTylopoda()
superfamilyCameloidea
familyCamelidae
familyCamelidae

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
ReferenceDiagnosis
D. R. Prothero 1996he Family Camelidae is united by the following shared characters that distinguish it from the remaining Tylopoda, and all other artiodactyls: fully selenodont, transversely compressed upper molars that are relatively high- crowned (compared to other primitive Tylopoda), with straight ectolophs, and with fossettes that are closed anteriorly and posteriorly after moderate wear. Relatively long, narrow rostrum. Postorbital processes well developed, and nearly or completely closed. Inflated tympanic bulla filled with cancellous bone and indented by a deep tympanohyal groove. Angular process on mandible with a distinctive dorsal "hook." Long, unfused to fused, distally divergent middle metapodials with metacarpals II and IV and metatarsals II and V reduced to nodules. Metatarsals III and IV have flattened dorsal surfaces and their distal keels do not extend to the dorsal side. Fibular facet on the calcaneum has a proximal convexity and a dorsal concavity.
Measurements
No measurements are available
Composition: phosphaticsubp
Environment: terrestrialo
Locomotion: actively mobilec
Life habit: ground dwellingf
Diet: browserf
Diet 2: browserf
Comments: life habit based on Nowak 1999; living camelids are grazers according to Nowak 1999, but fossil camels were largely browsers according to Honey et al. 1998f
Created: 2005-06-08 10:11:09
Modified: 2005-08-31 16:42:02
Source: f = family, o = order, c = class, subp = subphylum
References: Nowak 1991, Nowak 1999, Carroll 1988, Hendy et al. 2009

Age range

Maximum range based only on fossils: base of the Uintan to the top of the Holocene or 46.20000 to 0.00000 Ma
Minimum age of oldest fossil (stem group age): 40.4 Ma

Collections (1377 total)

Oldest occurrences

Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Uintan46.2 - 40.4USA (California) Poebrodon californicus (16590)
Uintan46.2 - 40.4USA (Utah) Poebrodon kayi (16607)
Uintan46.2 - 40.4USA (Wyoming) Poebrodon sp. (16648)
Uintan46.2 - 40.4Mexico (Oaxaca) Poebrotherium sp. (166797)
Duchesnean40.4 - 37.2USA (California) Camelidae indet. (16813)
Duchesnean40.4 - 37.2USA (New Mexico) Camelidae indet. (16882)
Duchesnean - Early/Lower Chadronian40.4 - 33.9USA (California) Camelidae indet. (17039)
Chadronian37.2 - 33.9USA (Nebraska) Paratylopus labiatus, Poebrotherium eximium (16970) Poebrotherium eximium (16918 17031) Poebrotherium sp. (16929 16940 17014) Poebrotherium wilsoni (16930)
Chadronian37.2 - 33.9USA (Montana) Poebrotherium eximium (16925) Poebrotherium sp. (16914 16935 16988 17010)
Chadronian37.2 - 33.9USA (Wyoming) Poebrotherium eximium (16942 16986) Poebrotherium eximium, Poebrotherium wilsoni (16943) Poebrotherium sp. (16901 16902 16960 16961 16962 16963 16964 16965 16992)
Chadronian37.2 - 33.9Canada (Saskatchewan) Poebrotherium sp. (16893 16919)
Chadronian37.2 - 33.9USA (North Dakota) Poebrotherium sp. (16991)
Chadronian37.2 - 33.9USA (Texas) Poebrotherium chadronense, Poebrotherium franki (16888)
Chadronian37.2 - 33.9USA (Colorado) Poebrotherium sp. (16977)
Chadronian37.2 - 33.9USA (South Dakota) Camelidae indet. (16938) Poebrotherium andersoni (16885) Poebrotherium sp. (17006)
Chadronian - Orellan37.2 - 33.3USA (Wyoming) Camelidae indet. (17063)
Orellan33.9 - 33.3USA (Colorado) Poebrotherium wilsoni (17082) Poebrotherium wilsoni, Poebrotherium labiatum (17081)
Orellan33.9 - 33.3USA (Nebraska) Paratylopus labiatus (17177) Paratylopus labiatus, Poebrotherium wilsoni (17112 17159) Poebrotherium wilsoni (17062 17098 17164)
Orellan33.9 - 33.3USA (South Dakota) Paratylopus labiatus (17180) Poebrotherium labiatum (17115) Poebrotherium sp. (17133 17187 17190 17296) Poebrotherium wilsoni (17094 17153 17173 17174 17295)
Orellan33.9 - 33.3USA (Wyoming) Paratylopus labiatus, Poebrotherium eximium, Poebrotherium wilsoni (17134) Poebrotherium eximium, Poebrotherium wilsoni, Poebrotherium labiatum (17104 17105) Poebrotherium sp. (17064 17117) Poebrotherium wilsoni (17106)