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Artiodactyla (even-toed ungulate)

Mammalia - Ungulata

Taxonomy
Artiodactyla was named by Owen (1848). It is extant.

It was reranked as the suborder Artiodactyla by Cope (1889), Flower and Lydekker (1891), Gadow (1898), Hay (1902), Andrews (1906) and Lambe (1908); it was synonymized subjectively with Cetartiodactyla by Waddell et al. (1999), Ursing et al. (2000), Boisserie et al. (2005) and Boisserie et al. (2011); it was reranked as the order Artiodactyla by Owen (1848), Leidy (1873), Flower (1883), Gregory (1910), Thorpe (1937), Ferrusquia-Villafranca (1969), Hamilton (1978), Thurmond and Jones (1981), Stuenes (1989), Shoshani et al. (1989), Montgelard et al. (1997), Lucas et al. (1998), Archibald (1998), Weston (2000), Thewissen et al. (2001), Boisserie et al. (2003), Boisserie (2005), Ferrusquía-Villafranca (2006), Hulbert and Whitmore (2006), Spaulding et al. (2009), Asher and Helgen (2010), Lander and Lindsay (2011) and Vianey-Liaud et al. (2014).

It was assigned to Diplarthra by Cope (1889); to Ungulata by Flower and Lydekker (1891), Gadow (1898), Hay (1902) and Lambe (1908); to Paraxonia by Gregory (1910); to Ungulata by Thorpe (1937); to Eparctocyona by McKenna (1975); to Eutheria by Hooker (1986); to Eutheria by Carroll (1988) and Nowak (1991); to Ungulata by Owen (1848), Flower (1883), Andrews (1906) and Archibald (1998); to Cetartiodactyla by Montgelard et al. (1997) and Thewissen et al. (2001); to Artiodactylamorpha by Spaulding et al. (2009); to Euungulata by Asher and Helgen (2010); to Mammalia by Uhen et al. (2011); to Mammalia by Leidy (1873), Ferrusquia-Villafranca (1969), Hamilton (1978), Thurmond and Jones (1981), Stuenes (1989), Shoshani et al. (1989), Lucas et al. (1998), Weston (2000), Boisserie et al. (2003), Boisserie (2005), Ferrusquía-Villafranca (2006), Hulbert and Whitmore (2006), Prothero and Liter (2008), Prothero (2008), Morgan et al. (2009) and Lander and Lindsay (2011); and to Eutheria by Vianey-Liaud et al. (2014).

Synonyms
Synonymy list
YearName and author
1848Artiodactyla Owen p. 131
1873Artiodactyla Leidy p. 317
1883Artiodactyla Flower p. 184
1889Artiodactyla Cope p. 876
1891Artiodactyla Flower and Lydekker p. 89
1898Artiodactyla Gadow p. 48
1902Artiodactyla Hay p. 647
1906Artiodactyla Andrews p. 178
1908Artiodactyla Lambe
1910Artiodactyla Gregory p. 466
1937Artiodactyla Thorpe p. 31
1947Nothokemadidae White p. 508
1969Artiodactyla Ferrusquia-Villafranca
1975Artiodactyla McKenna p. 43
1978Artiodactyla Hamilton p. 168
1981Artiodactyla Thurmond and Jones p. 187
1986Artiodactyla Hooker p. 376
1988Artiodactyla Carroll
1989Artiodactyla Shoshani et al. p. 436
1989Artiodactyla Stuenes p. 243
1991Artiodactyla Nowak
1997Cetartiodactyla Montgelard et al.
1997Artiodactyla Montgelard et al. p. 555
1997Cetartiodactyla Montgelard et al. p. 556
1998Artiodactyla Archibald
1998Artiodactyla Lucas et al. p. 426
1999Cetartiodactyla Waddell et al. p. 3
2000Artiodactyla Weston p. 177
2001Cetartiodactyla Madsen et al. p. 610
2001Artiodactyla Thewissen et al. p. suppl.
2001Cetartiodactyla Thewissen et al. p. suppl.
2001Cetartiodactyla Waddell et al. p. 148
2003Artiodactyla Boisserie et al. p. 16
2004Cetartiodactyla Uhen p. 11
2005Artiodactyla Boisserie p. 12
2006Artiodactyla Ferrusquía-Villafranca p. 993
2006Artiodactyla Hulbert and Whitmore p. 6
2008Cetartiodactyla Bisconti p. 162
2008Artiodactyla Prothero
2008Artiodactyla Prothero and Liter
2009Artiodactyla Morgan et al.
2009Artiodactyla Spaulding et al.
2010Artiodactyla Asher and Helgen p. 3
2010Cetartiodactyla Weston and Boisserie p. 853
2011Artiodactyla Lander and Lindsay p. 221
2011Artiodactyla Uhen et al. p. 957
2014Artiodactyla Vianey-Liaud et al. p. 606

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
RankNameAuthor
Amniota
Synapsida()
Therapsida()
infraorderCynodontia()
Epicynodontia
infraorderEucynodontia
Probainognathia
Mammaliamorpha
Mammaliaformes
classMammalia
subclassTribosphenida()
infraclassEutheria()
orderUngulata(Linnaeus 1766)
orderArtiodactyla()
orderArtiodactyla()

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
No diagnoses are available
Measurements
No measurements are available
Composition: phosphaticsubp
Maximum body mass: 30 kgg
Minimum body mass: 300 gs
Environment: terrestrialo
Locomotion: actively mobilec
Life habit: ground dwellingo
Diet: grazero
Diet 2: browsero
Created: 2005-08-26 14:03:05
Modified: 2005-09-19 12:23:23
Source: s = species, g = genus, o = order, c = class, subp = subphylum
References: Legendre 1988, Nowak 1999, Carroll 1988, Hendy et al. 2009

Age range

Maximum range based only on fossils: base of the Tiffanian to the top of the Holocene or 61.70000 to 0.00000 Ma
Minimum age of oldest fossil (stem group age): 56.8 Ma

Collections (6547 total)

Oldest occurrences

Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Cenozoic66.0 - 0.0Mongolia (South Gobi Aimag) Bovidae indet., Artiodactyla indet. (137861)
Tiffanian61.7 - 56.8USA (North Dakota) Pantolestoidea indet. (14946)
Ypresian56.0 - 47.8Kyrgyzstan (Osh) Diacodexis sp., Diacodexeidae indet., Eolantianius russelli (28490)
Ypresian56.0 - 47.8France (Oise) Diacodexis sp. (68174)
Ypresian56.0 - 47.8France Cuisitherium lydekkeri, Protodichobune oweni (183451)
Ypresian56.0 - 47.8Belgium (Hainaut) Diacodexis gigasei (87947)
Ypresian56.0 - 47.8France (Languedoc-Roussillon-Midi-Pyrénées) Diacodexis gazini (179574)
Ypresian56.0 - 47.8United Kingdom Diacodexis sp. 1, Diacodexis sp., Protodichobune sp. (87950)
Ypresian56.0 - 47.8United Kingdom (England) Diacodexis morrisi (38868)
Ypresian56.0 - 47.8France (Champagne Ardenne) Protodichobune oweni, Aumelasia menieli (177753)
Ypresian56.0 - 47.8France (Marne) Bunophorus cappettai, Cuisitherium sp., Diacodexis varleti (35535) Bunophorus cappettai, Diacodexis varleti (35537) Bunophorus cappettai, Simpsonodus sp., Diacodexis varleti (35533) Cuisitherium lydekkeri, Protodichobune oweni, Aumelasia menieli, Eurodexis russelli (35539) Cuisitherium lydekkeri, Protodichobune oweni, Diacodexis varleti, Aumelasia menieli, Eurodexis russelli (35540 181653) Protodichobune oweni (181639)
Ypresian56.0 - 47.8Kazakhstan (Chimkent) Artiodactyla indet. (200979) Diacodexeidae indet. (49051)
Ypresian56.0 - 47.8France (Champagne-Ardenne) Cuisitherium lydekkeri, Diacodexis varleti, Aumelasia menieli, Eurodexis russelli (28546) Cuisitherium lydekkeri, Protodichobune oweni, Diacodexis varleti, Aumelasia menieli (73387)
Ypresian56.0 - 47.8France (Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur) Diacodexis gigasei (178050)
Ypresian56.0 - 47.8India (Gujarat) Gujaratia pakistanensis, Gujaratia indica, Diacodexis parvus (55494)
Ypresian56.0 - 47.8India (Jammu and Kashmir) Metkatius kashmiriensis, Khirtharia inflatus, Kunmunella kalakotensis, Kunmunella transversa, Indohyus indirae (45588)
Ypresian - Lutetian56.0 - 41.3France (Occitanie) Aumelasia sudrei, Protodichobune hellmundi, Lophiobunodon hookeri (195457)
Eocene56.0 - 33.9Germany (Sachsen-Anhalt) Lophiotherium pygmaeum (45521 45738)
Eocene56.0 - 33.9Pakistan Anthracotheriidae indet. (93752)
Eocene56.0 - 33.9Spain (Aragon) Amphitragulus sp., Cainotherium sp. (39017)