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Ciconiiformes

Reptilia - Avetheropoda

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1854Ciconiiformes Bonaparte
1890Ciconiiformes Zittel p. 839
1898Ciconiiformes Gadow p. 32
1960Ciconiiformes Wetmore p. 25
1981Ciconiiformes Thurmond and Jones p. 164
1988Ciconiiformes Carroll
1992Ciconiiformes Guthrie p. 321
2000Ciconiiformes Martin et al. p. 54
2006Ciconiiformes Slack et al. p. 1150
2007Ciconiiformes Livezey and Zusi p. 91
2008Ciconiiformes Louchart et al. p. 156
2012Ciconiiformes Wang et al.
2014Ciconiiformes del Hoyo et al.

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
Sauropsida
classReptilia
subclassEureptilia()
Romeriida
Diapsida()
Eosuchia()
Neodiapsida
SauriaGauthier 1984
Archosauromorpha(Huene 1946)
Crocopoda
ArchosauriformesGauthier 1986
Eucrocopoda
RankNameAuthor
Archosauria()
informalAvemetatarsalia
Ornithodira
Dinosauromorpha
Dinosauriformes
Dinosauria()
Saurischia()
Theropoda()
Neotheropoda
AverostraPaul 2002
Tetanurae
orderAvetheropoda
suborderCoelurosauria
Maniraptora
Paraves
classAves
PygostyliaChiappe 2002
Ornithothoraces
OrnithuromorphaChiappe et al. 1999
subclassOrnithurae
subclassNeornithesGadow 1893
Neognathae(Pycraft 1900)
NeoavesSibley et al. 1988
NatatoresBaird 1858
Steganograllatores
superorderCiconiimorphae
orderCiconiiformesBonaparte 1854
orderCiconiiformesBonaparte 1854

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
No diagnoses are available
Measurements
No measurements are available
Composition: hydroxyapatiteo
Entire body: yeso
Adult length: 10 to < 100o
Adult width: 1.0 to < 10o
Adult height: 1.0 to < 10o
Architecture: compact or denseo
Ontogeny: accretion, modification of partso
Grouping: solitaryo
Environment: terrestrialo
Locomotion: actively mobileo
Life habit: ground dwellingo
Diet: carnivoresubo
Reproduction: oviparouso
Dispersal: direct/internalo
Dispersal 2: mobileo
Created: 2009-01-03 20:39:15
Modified: 2009-01-03 22:39:15
Source: subo = suborder, o = order
References: Benton 1983, Marsh 1875

Age range

Maximum range based only on fossils: base of the Early/Lower Hauterivian to the top of the Holocene or 136.40000 to 0.00000 Ma
Minimum age of oldest fossil (stem group age): 130.0 Ma

Collections (91 total)


Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Early/Lower Hauterivian136.4 - 130.0France Gallornis straeleni (61563)
Late/Upper Maastrichtian70.6 - 66.0USA (Wyoming) Ciconiiformes indet. (14585)
Middle Eocene48.6 - 37.2China (Guangdong) Sanshuiornis zhangi (196650)
Lutetian47.8 - 41.3Germany (Sachsen-Anhalt) Eocathartes robustus (13322)
Rupelian33.9 - 28.1Egypt (Fayum) Ciconiidae indet. (60127) Xenerodiops mycter (12954) Xenerodiops mycter, Palaeoephippiorhynchus dietrichi (12960)
Early/Lower Miocene23.03 - 15.97Saudi Arabia Mycteria cinereus (47088) Mycteria cinereus, Mycteria sp. (47021)
Aquitanian - Langhian23.03 - 13.82USA (North Carolina) Ciconiidae indet., Ciconia speciesone (48887)
Burdigalian20.44 - 15.97Uganda Ciconiiformes indet. (192070)
Hemingfordian20.43 - 15.97USA (Florida) Ciconiidae indet., Propelargus olseni (18586)
MN 416.9 - 15.97Egypt Leptoptilos sp. (53970)
Langhian15.97 - 13.82USA (California) Ciconiidae indet. (59059)
Barstovian15.97 - 13.6USA (Nebraska) Mycteria milleri (18109)
MN 5 - MN 7 + 815.97 - 11.1France (Rhône-Alpes) Tantalus milneedwardsii (110928)
Clarendonian13.6 - 10.3USA (Texas) Mycteria sp. (18610)
Late/Upper Clarendonian13.6 - 10.3USA (Florida) Ciconiidae indet. (18554)
Tortonian11.62 - 7.246Kenya Ciconiidae indet. (22241)
Tortonian - Piacenzian11.62 - 2.588Kenya Leptoptilos crumeniferus (22242) Leptoptilos sp. (22235)
Late/Upper Miocene11.608 - 5.333Argentina (Chubut) Leptoptilos patagonicus (85116)
Late/Upper Miocene11.608 - 5.333Greece (Attica) Ciconia gaudryi (182754)
Late/Upper Miocene11.608 - 5.333Tunisia (Gafsa) Leptoptilos falconeri (35281)
Late/Upper Miocene - Pliocene11.608 - 2.588Chad Ciconiidae indet., Ephippiorhynchus sp. (24181)
Turolian8.7 - 5.333Greece (Makedonia Thraki) Amphipelargus sp. (157582)
Messinian7.246 - 5.333Chad Ephippiorhynchus sp. (192294) Ephippiorhynchus sp., Ephippiorhynchus tchoufour (59839) Mycteria sp. (192292 192293)
Zanclean5.333 - 3.6USA (North Carolina) Ciconia speciestwo (52582)
Zanclean5.333 - 3.6South Africa Ciconiidae indet. (22221) Scopus xenopus, Ciconia kahli (22227)
Pliocene - Pleistocene5.333 - 0.0117France Ciconia sp. (44231)
Pliocene - Pleistocene5.333 - 0.0117Italy (Umbria) Ciconiidae indet. (51684)
Blancan4.9 - 1.8USA (Florida) Ciconia maltha (19753)
MN 172.588 - 1.806France (Rhone-Alpes) Ciconia sp. (47150)
Early/Lower Pleistocene2.588 - 0.781South Africa Plataleidae indet. (21824)
Early/Lower Pleistocene2.588 - 0.781USA (Florida) Ciconia maltha (154721)
Pleistocene2.588 - 0.0117South Africa Plataleidae indet. (21828 21829)
Irvingtonian1.8 - 0.3USA (Florida) Ciconia maltha (20308 20334 20400 20415)
Middle Pleistocene0.781 - 0.126Indonesia (Jawa Timur) Leptoptilos dubius, Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus (77490)
Middle Pleistocene0.781 - 0.126USA (Florida) Ciconia maltha (195048 195049)
Rancholabrean0.3 - 0.012Mexico (Sonora) Ciconiidae indet. (20495)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.126 - 0.0117Peru Jabiru mycteria, Mycteria americana (71346)
Late/Upper Pleistocene (interglacial)0.126 - 0.0117USA (Florida) Ciconia maltha (20580 20636)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.126 - 0.0117USA (California) Ciconia maltha (20273 192604)
Late/Upper Pleistocene (high glacial)0.126 - 0.0117Venezuela (Zulia) Ciconiidae indet. (63515)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.126 - 0.0117Mexico (Jalisco) Mycteria wetmorei (192628)
Late/Upper Pleistocene (glacial)0.126 - 0.0117USA (Florida) Ciconia maltha, Mycteria americana (154921) Jabiru mycteria (154771)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.126 - 0.0117Mexico (Mexico) Ciconia sp. (192627)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.126 - 0.0117USA (Hawaii) Apteribis glenos (110072)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.126 - 0.0117Congo-Kinshasa Ciconiidae indet. 1, Ciconiidae indet. 2, Anastomus lamelligerus, Mycteria ibis (22066)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.126 - 0.0117Indonesia (East Nusa Tenggara) Leptoptilos robustus (68065 106280 193368 193369 193370)
Late/Upper Pleistocene (late glacial)0.126 - 0.0117USA (Florida) Ciconia maltha (154722)
Late/Upper Pleistocene (interglacial)0.126 - 0.0117USA (Idaho) Ciconia maltha (20569)
Late/Upper Pleistocene (high glacial)0.126 - 0.0117China (Hubei) Ciconia boyciana (92787)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.126 - 0.0117Indonesia (Java) Leptoptilos titan (74620)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.126 - 0.0117USA (Florida) Ciconia maltha, Mycteria wetmorei, Mycteria americana (154773) Jabiru mycteria (74292) Jabiru weillsi, Mycteria americana (34269)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.126 - 0.0117USA (Texas) Ciconia maltha (85142)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.126 - 0.0117Italy Ciconia nigra (194929)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.126 - 0.0117United Kingdom Ciconia ciconia (93837)
Late/Upper Pleistocene - Holocene0.126 - 0.0Madagascar Scopus umbretta (195018)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0USA (Hawaii) Apteribis glenos (110073 110074) Apteribis sp. (110075 110078 176474 176475 176477 176478 176480 176481 176482) Apteribis sp., Apteribis brevis (176476)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0France Ciconia ciconia (195041)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0Madagascar Anastomus lamelligerus (195019)