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Elasmosauridae (elasmosaur)

Reptilia - Sauropterygia - Elasmosauridae

View classification of included taxa

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1850Plesiosaurus constrictus Owen p. 398
1854Brimosaurus Leidy p. 72 figs. Pl. 2, fig. 1-3
1858Plesiosaurus gurgitis Renevier p. 5
1864Plesiosaurus constrictus Owen p. 1
1867Plesiosaurus macrospondylus McCoy p. 356
1867Plesiosaurus sutherlandi McCoy p. 356
1869Elasmosauridae Cope
1869Elasmosaurus constrictus Cope p. 42
1870Plesiosaurus hoodii Owen p. 51
1870Plesiosaurus crassicostatus Owen p. 52
1870Plesiosaurus hoodii Owen p. 53 figs. Pl. III, figs. 1-3
1871Elasmosauridae Cope p. 235
1872Plesiosaurus gulo Cope p. 127
1874Plesiosaurus crassicostatus Hector p. 341
1874Plesiosaurus hoodii Hector p. 343
1874Plesiosaurus holmesii Hector p. 344
1874Plesiosaurus mackayii Hector p. 345
1875Elasmosauridae Cope p. 15
1878Mauisaurus gardneri Seeley p. 541
1881Plesiosaurus gardneri Whidborne
1882Plesiosaurus helmersenii Kiprijanoff pp. 18, 21 figs. pl. 11, figs 1-3; pl. 12, figs 1-2; pl. 13, figs 1-2
1885Pliosaurus gigas Schroder p. 322 figs. pl. 16, fig. 1
1889Cimoliasaurus cantabrigiensis Lydekker
1889Cimoliosaurus cantabrigiensis Lydekker p. 183 fig. 60
1889Cimoliosaurus constrictus Lydekker p. 212
1889Cimoliosaurus hoodii Lydekker p. 245
1892Elasmosauridae Seeley p. 151
1894Cimoliasaurus caudalis Hutton p. 356 figs. pl. 42
1895Cimoliasaurus andium Deecke
1902Plesiosaurus gulo Hay p. 456
1902Elasmosauridae Hay p. 457
1903Plesiosaurus gulo Williston p. 7
1903Brimosaurus Williston p. 8
1903Polycotylus ischiadicus Williston p. 10
1904Cimoliasaurus sutherlandi Etheridge p. 312
1906Thalassonomosaurus nobilis Williston
1906Elasmosaurus ischiadicus Williston p. 231
1906Elasmosaurus nobilis Williston pp. 232-233
1906Elasmosaurus sternbergi Williston p. 232
1910Elasmosauridae Andrews p. 77
1911Elasmosaurus orskensis Bogolubov p. 36 figs. pl. 14, figs 1-3
1911Elasmosaurus kurskensis Bogolubov p. 353
1911Elasmosaurus helmersenii Bogolubov p. 359
1911Elasmosaurus serdobensis Bogolubov p. 374 figs. pl. 14, figs 4-5
1914Pliosaurus macrospondylus Chapman p. 278
1914Pliosaurus sutherlandi Chapman p. 278
1914Plesiosaurus gigas Wegner p. 303
1914Elasmosauridae Wegner p. 304
1916Elasmosaurus amalitskii Pravoslavlev p. 315
1917Ogmodirus ischiadicus Williston and Moodie p. 61
1918Elasmosaurus hoodii Pravoslavlev p. 1955
1940Elasmosauridae White p. 466 figs. 12a-c
1941Elasmosauridae Cabrera pp. 114-129
1943Elasmosauridae Welles
1943Thalassiosaurus ischiadicus Welles
1943Thalassonomosaurus nobilis Welles pp. 190-191 fig. 33
1946Elasmosauridae Kuhn p. 59
1949Alzadasaurus tropicus Colbert p. 4 figs. 3-9
1949Cimoliasaurus andium Colbert p. 19
1949Elasmosauridae Welles
1952Plesiosaurus mauritanicus Arambourg
1952Alzadasaurus kansasensis Welles
1959Cimoliasauridae Delair
1959Elasmosaurus gigas Persson p. 445
1960Cimoliosauridae Delair pp. 59-60
1960Elasmosauridae Delair p. 67
1960Woolungasaurus Persson
1960Woolungasaurus glendowerensis Persson p. 11 figs. Pl. 1, figs. 3, 4, Pls. 2, 3
1962Elasmosauridae Welles p. 2
1962Alzadasaurus kansasensis Welles pp. 3 & 62
1963Cimoliasauridae Persson p. 6
1963Elasmosauridae Persson p. 7
1963Elasmosaurus kurskensis Persson p. 19
1963Elasmosaurus orskensis Persson p. 19
1963Elasmosaurus serdobensis Persson p. 19
1963Mauisaurus gardneri Persson p. 19
1963Woolungasaurus Persson p. 22
1964Cimoliasauridae Antunes p. 133
1966Cimoliasauridae Kuhn p. 117
1966Elasmosauridae Kuhn p. 117
1981Elasmosauridae Brown p. 340
1981Elasmosauridae Thurmond and Jones p. 139
1988Brimosaurus Carroll
1988Elasmosauridae Carroll
1988Woolungasaurus Carroll
1991Woolungasaurus glendowerensis Fordyce p. 1173
1993Elasmosauridae Gasparini and Spaletti p. 250
1999Elasmosauridae Carpenter p. 150
2001Elasmosauridae Gasparini et al.
2001Cimoliasauridae O'Keefe p. 19 fig. 20
2001Elasmosauridae O'Keefe p. 19 fig. 20
2002Elasmosauridae Nicholls and Meckert p. 1593
2002Brimosaurus Sepkoski, Jr.
2002Woolungasaurus Sepkoski, Jr.
2003Elasmosauridae Gasparini et al. p. 105
2003Elasmosauridae Sato p. 90
2004Cimoliasauridae O'Keefe p. 336 figs. Fig. 11
2005Elasmosauridae Schumacher and Everhart p. 48
2006Elasmosauridae Druckenmiller and Russell p. 186
2009Elasmosauridae O'Keefe and Street p. 49
2010Elasmosauridae Ketchum and Benson p. 15
2011Elasmosauridae Ketchum and Benson p. 126
2014Elasmosauridae Benson and Druckenmiller figs. 2-3
2014Elasmosauridae Otero et al.
2017Elasmosauridae Serratos et al.
2018Elasmosauridae O'Gorman et al.

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phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
Pistosauria(Baur 1890)
Plesiosauria(de Blainville 1835)
superfamilyPlesiosauroideaWelles 1943
familyElasmosauridaeCope 1869
familyElasmosauridaeCope 1869

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

T. E. White 1940"Mesocephalic; 20 to 76 cervical, dorsals 30 +, ? caudals; cervical ribs single- or double-headed; clavicles and interclavicle absent; scapula meeting coracoid medial to scapulo-coracoid fenestra; fenestrae large and separated in mature forms by a bar no wider than the diameter of one fenestra; posterolateral angles of coracoids not produced."
D. S. Brown 1981Plesiosauroidea with a maximum of five pairs of premaxillary teeth; upper tooth row of advanced forms characterized by the development of enlarged premaxillary and anterior maxillary teeth separated by smaller teeth around the maxillo-premaxillary suture; dentary teeth primitively 24 pairs, reducing to a minimum of 14 pairs in advanced forms; teeth ornamented with numerous longitudinal ridges; occipital condyle formed from the basioccipital only, and usually ringed by a constricting groove; overall length from about 3 m in primitive forms to a maximum of 14 m in advanced forms; number of cervical vertebrae primitively c. 32 and reaching a maximum of 71 in advanced forms; except for some primitive forms, cervical centra relatively elongated; cervical ribs (primitively double-headed) are single-headed in Upper Jurassic and later forms; ventral rami of the scapulae relatively broad and meeting in the ventral midline in 'adults'; epipodials primitively longer than broad, becoming broader than long in advanced forms; the fifth metapodial shifting proximally into the distal mesapodial row in advanced forms; hyperphalangy of up to 17 phalanges in the longest digit.
F. R. O'Keefe 2001"Anterior quadrate embayment absent (reversal); premaxilla excluded from border of internal naris; vomer extends posterior to internal nares; number of cervical rib heads reduced to one; coracoids long with deep median embayment; ventro-medial margin of pubis concave; ulna not lunate (reversal); epipodials wider than long."
F. R. O'Keefe 2001 (Cimoliasauridae)"Rostrum long, unconstricted, and hoop-like; paraoccipital process articulates with squamosal only; teeth very small and needle-like; number of maxillary teeth greater than thirty."
No measurements are available
Composition: hydroxyapatiteo
Environment: marineo
Locomotion: actively mobileo
Life habit: aquatico
Depth habitat: surfaceo
Diet: carnivoreo
Reproduction: viviparouso
Created: 2009-07-20 06:05:48
Modified: 2011-08-12 01:58:15
Source: o = order
Reference: Kiessling 2004

Age range: base of the Norian to the top of the Late/Upper Maastrichtian or 228.00000 to 66.00000 Ma

Collections (185 total)

Oldest occurrences

Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Norian228.0 - 208.5Russian Federation (Nenets) Alexeyisaurus karnoushenkoi (103802)
Pliensbachian190.8 - 182.7United Kingdom (Scotland) Elasmosauridae sp. (139597)
Middle Aalenian175.6 - 171.6France (Pays de la Loire) Elasmosauridae indet. (140648)
Middle Callovian164.7 - 161.2Germany (Nordrhein-Westfalen) Elasmosauridae indet. (67698)
Kimmeridgian157.3 - 152.1Mexico (Nuevo Leon) Elasmosauridae indet. (142832)
Kimmeridgian - Early/Lower Tithonian157.3 - 145.0United Kingdom (England) Muraenosaurus brevior (92096)
Early/Lower Kimmeridgian - Late/Upper Kimmeridgian155.7 - 150.8Mexico Elasmosauridae indet. (142849)
Early/Lower Tithonian150.8 - 145.0Mexico (Coahuila) Elasmosauridae indet. (104859)
Late/Upper Tithonian - Early/Lower Berriasian150.8 - 140.2France (Nord-Pas-de-Calais) Elasmosauridae indet. (92144)
Late/Upper Tithonian - Early/Lower Berriasian150.8 - 140.2United Kingdom (England) Elasmosauridae indet. (122657)

Youngest occurrences

Time interval Ma Country or state PBDB collection number
Late/Upper Maastrichtian70.6 - 66.0Netherlands Elasmosauridae indet. (138910)
Late/Upper Maastrichtian70.6 - 66.0Bulgaria (Pleven) Elasmosauridae indet. (105085)
Late/Upper Maastrichtian70.6 - 66.0USA (New Jersey) Ichthyosauria indet. (88034)
Late/Upper Maastrichtian70.6 - 66.0Chile (Biobio) Aristonectes sp. (150921)
Late/Upper Maastrichtian70.6 - 66.0Morocco Elasmosauridae indet. (137830) Plesiosaurus mauritanicus (143257 143258) Zarafasaura oceanis (116628)
Late/Upper Maastrichtian70.6 - 66.0Chile Elasmosauridae indet., Aristonectinae indet. (157301) Mauisaurus sp., Aristonectinae indet. (91416)
Late/Upper Maastrichtian70.6 - 66.0Argentina (Santa Cruz) Elasmosauridae indet. (181059)
Late/Upper Maastrichtian70.6 - 66.0Belgium Elasmosauridae indet. (143255)
Late/Upper Maastrichtian70.6 - 66.0Antarctica Aristonectes parvidens (140323) Elasmosauridae indet. (149632) Elasmosauridae indet., Turneria seymourensis (13106) Weddellonectia indet. (51962)
Late/Upper Maastrichtian70.6 - 66.0Chile (Concepcíon) Cimoliasaurus sp. (13309)