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Plesiosauroidea

Reptilia - Sauropterygia

Synonyms
Synonymy list
YearName and author
1887Plesiosaurus limnophilus Koken p. 109
1889Cimoliosaurus limnophilus Lydekker p. 224
1892Dolichodeira Seeley p. 151
1943Plesiosauroidea Welles
1960Plesiosauroidea Delair p. 53
1962Plesiosauroidea Welles p. 3
1963Plesiosauroidea Persson p. 2
1964Plesiosauroidea Antunes p. 133
1966Plesiosauroidea Kuhn p. 116
1981Plesiosauroidea Brown p. 339
1981Plesiosauroidea Thurmond and Jones p. 139
1988Plesiosauroidea Carroll
1991Plesiosauroidea Bardet et al. p. 1346
1993Plesiosauroidea Gasparini and Spaletti p. 250
1994Plesiosauroidea Cruickshank p. 250
1996Plesiosauroidea Carpenter p. 267
1999Plesiosauroidea Carpenter p. 168 fig. 15
2001Plesiosauroidea O'Keefe p. 19 fig. 20
2002Plesiosauroidea Gasparini et al.
2005Plesiosauroidea Schumacher and Everhart p. 48
2008Plesiosauroidea O'Keefe p. 665
2010Plesiosauroidea Ketchum and Benson p. 15
2011Plesiosauroidea Ketchum and Benson p. 126
2011Plesiosauroidea Schwermann and Sander p. 49
2012Plesiosauroidea Benson et al.
2014Plesiosauroidea Benson and Druckenmiller figs. 2-3
2019Plesiosauroidea Vincent et al.

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
RankNameAuthor
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
Sauropsida
classReptilia
subclassEureptilia()
Romeriida
Diapsida()
orderSauropterygia
Pistosauria(Baur 1890)
Plesiosauria(de Blainville 1835)
superfamilyPlesiosauroideaWelles 1943
superfamilyPlesiosauroideaWelles 1943

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
ReferenceDiagnosis
D. S. Brown 1981Plesiosauria with relatively small skulls; mandibular symphysis short, being between the first pair of alveoli only, these not bearing especially enlarged teeth; teeth with slim crowns which do not usually show wear on their tips; at least 28 cervical vertebrae; cervical centra of moderate relative length or elongated; the ventral rami of the scapulae becoming broad; ischia relatively short anteroposteriorly; propodials massive, humerus generally larger than femur.
F. R. O'Keefe 2001"Prefrontal contacts margin of external naris; nasal absent; cervical neural spines not angled backward; dorsal neural spines compressed and blade-like."
Measurements
No measurements are available
Composition: hydroxyapatiteo
Environment: marineo
Locomotion: actively mobileo
Life habit: aquatico
Depth habitat: surfaceo
Diet: carnivoreo
Reproduction: viviparouso
Created: 2009-07-20 06:05:48
Modified: 2011-08-12 01:58:15
Source: o = order
Reference: Kiessling 2004

Age range: base of the Norian to the top of the Late/Upper Maastrichtian or 228.00000 to 66.00000 Ma

Collections (397 total)

Oldest occurrences

Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Norian228.0 - 208.5Russian Federation (Nenets) Alexeyisaurus karnoushenkoi (103802)
Rhaetian208.5 - 201.3Germany (Sachsen-Anhalt) Plesiosaurus keuperinus (139489)
Rhaetian208.5 - 201.3France (Burgundy) Plesiosaurus costatus, Plesiosaurus bitractensis (144758 144759)
Rhaetian208.5 - 201.3Germany (Baden-Württemberg) Plesiosaurus sp. (131422)
Rhaetian208.5 - 201.3United Kingdom (England) Plesiosaurus costatus, Plesiosaurus trigonus (57958) Plesiosaurus sp. (96617 163305 163310)
Rhaetian208.5 - 201.3Belgium (Gaume) Plesiosaurus sp. (139199 139202)
Rhaetian208.5 - 201.3France (Champagne-Ardennes) Plesiosaurus carinatus (139922)
Angulata201.3 - 196.5France (Lorraine) Plesiosaurus sp. (53947)
Early/Lower Hettangian201.3 - 196.5United Kingdom (England) Plesiosaurus cliduchus (119083)
Early/Lower Hettangian - Early/Lower Pliensbachian201.3 - 183.0United Kingdom (England) Plesiosaurus dolichodeirus, Plesiosaurus macrocephalus, Plesiosaurus macromus, Plesiosaurus platydeirus (118938)

Youngest occurrences

Time interval Ma Country or state PBDB collection number
Late/Upper Maastrichtian70.6 - 66.0Argentina (Santa Cruz) Elasmosauridae indet. (181059)
Late/Upper Maastrichtian70.6 - 66.0USA (New Jersey) Ichthyosauria indet. (88034)
Late/Upper Maastrichtian70.6 - 66.0Chile (Concepcíon) Cimoliasaurus sp. (13309)
Late/Upper Maastrichtian70.6 - 66.0Argentina (Río Negro) Mauisaurus sp. (140997 140998) Tuarangisaurus cabazai (140999)
Late/Upper Maastrichtian70.6 - 66.0Jordan Polycotylidae indet. (170239)
Late/Upper Maastrichtian70.6 - 66.0Chile (Concepción) Aristonectes parvidens (118945)
Late/Upper Maastrichtian70.6 - 66.0Netherlands (Limburg) Elasmosauridae indet. (67133 142084 143252 143254)
Late/Upper Maastrichtian70.6 - 66.0Argentina (Chubut) Aristonectes parvidens (97872)
Late/Upper Maastrichtian70.6 - 66.0Chile Elasmosauridae indet., Aristonectinae indet. (157301) Mauisaurus sp., Aristonectinae indet. (91416)
Late/Upper Maastrichtian70.6 - 66.0Chile (Biobio) Aristonectes sp. (150921)