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Trionychidae (softshell turtle)

Reptilia - Testudines - Trionychidae

Altaytrionyx, Altaytrionyx burtschaki, Altaytrionyx devjatkini, Altaytrionyx phiruzae, Amyda menneri, Apalone, Aspideretes, Aspideretes jaxarticus, Aspideretes muyuensis, Aspidonectes, Aspilus, Aspilus cortesii, Chitra minor, Conchochelys, Crassithecachelys, Cyclanorbinae, Eugenechelys, Gilmoremys, Hummelichelys, Lissemydinae, Paleotrionyx, Paleotrionyx jimenezfuentesi, Plastomenus gabunii, Plastomenus jaxarticus, Plastomenus mlynarskii, Platypeltis subcircularis, Procyclanorbis, Rafetini, Rafetus karkhualexandri, Rafetus yexiangkuii, Temnotrionyx, Trionychinae, Trionyx acutiformis, Trionyx amansii, Trionyx anthracotheriorum, Trionyx aquitanicus, Trionyx aspidiformis, Trionyx australiensis, Trionyx austriacus, Trionyx borkenensis, Trionyx bowerbanki, Trionyx bruxelliensis, Trionyx burdigalensis, Trionyx capellinii bulgaricus, Trionyx chaubeti, Trionyx ciryi, Trionyx cliftii, Trionyx croaticus, Trionyx danovi, Trionyx dodunii, Trionyx elongatus, Trionyx hilberi, Trionyx ishiharaensis, Trionyx italicus, Trionyx jakhimovitchae, Trionyx kazusensis, Trionyx khosatzkyi, Trionyx laurillardii, Trionyx lockardi, Trionyx lorioli, Trionyx manouri, Trionyx marini, Trionyx moldaviensis, Trionyx mourieri, Trionyx munzenbergensis, Trionyx nopcsai, Trionyx oligocenica, Trionyx oweni, Trionyx parisiensis, Trionyx partschii, Trionyx pedemontana, Trionyx petersi trifailensis, Trionyx pliocaenicus, Trionyx pompignanensis, Trionyx pontanus, Trionyx portisi, Trionyx preschenensis, Trionyx propinquus, Trionyx pseudovindobonensis, Trionyx pustulatus, Trionyx ragusensis, Trionyx reticulatus, Trionyx rocchettiana, Trionyx roncensis, Trionyx rotundiformis, Trionyx sculptus, Trionyx senckenbergianus, Trionyx senensis, Trionyx siegeri, Trionyx sophiae, Trionyx stormsi, Trionyx ubeensis, Trionyx valdensis, Trionyx zakhidovi, Zaisanonyx, Zangerlichelys

View classification of included taxa

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1825Trionychidae Gray
1831Trionyx amansii Gray
1831Trionyx dodunii Gray
1831Trionyx laurillardii Gray
1831Trionyx lockardi Gray
1831Trionyx manouri Gray
1831Trionyx parisiensis Gray p. 101
1832Trionyx parisiensis Meyer p. 101
1833Trionyx rotundiformis Bergounioux
1835Trionyx cliftii Fitzinger
1836Trionyx cliftii Fitzinger
1849Trionyx pustulatus Owen
1849Trionyx pustulatus Owen and Bell
1855Trionyx partschii Peters
1859Trionyx austriacus Peters
1865Trionyx italicus Schauroth
1869Trionyx aquitanicus Delfortrie
1869Trionyx bruxelliensis Winkler
1871Trionychidae Cope p. 235
1873Trionychidae Leidy p. 341
1875Trionychidae Cope p. 16
1879Trionyx pedemontana Portis
1882Trionyx lorioli Portis
1882Trionyx rocchettiana Portis
1882Trionyx valdensis Portis
1883Trionyx ragusensis De Gregorio
1883Trionyx anthracotheriorum Portis
1885Aspilus Portis
1885Aspilus cortesii Portis
1889Trionychidae Lydekker p. 4
1889Trionyx aquitanicus Lydekker pp. 10-11
1889Trionyx parisiensis Lydekker pp. 12-13
1889Trionyx bowerbanki Lydekker pp. 19-21 fig. 4
1891Trionyx portisi Ristori
1891Trionyx propinquus Ristori
1891Trionyx senensis Ristori
1892Trionyx hilberi Hoernes
1892Trionyx oligocenica Negri
1894Trionyx australiensis De Vis
1895Trionyx pontanus Laube
1899Trionyx stormsi Delheid
1900Trionyx aspidiformis Laube
1900Trionyx preschenensis Laube
1900Trionyx oweni Reinach
1901Procyclanorbis Portis
1902Trionychidae Hay p. 453
1903Trionyx pliocaenicus Reinach
1903Trionyx senckenbergianus Reinach
1905Trionyx pontanus Laube
1908Trionychidae Hay p. 493
1908Trionychidae Lambe
1909Trionyx bruxelliensis Dollo p. 111
1909Trionyx siegeri Heritsch
1909Trionyx sophiae Heritsch
1911Chitra minor Jaekel
1911Trionychidae Jaekel p. 186
1914Trionyx petersi trifailensis Teppner
1915Trionyx croaticus Koch
1919Trionyx roncensis Harrassowitz
1925Trionyx ubeensis Chitani
1927Trionyx munzenbergensis Hummel
1930Trionyx elongatus Liebus
1930Trionychidae Russell
1931Trionyx sculptus Gilmore p. 253 figs. Pl. 10
1933Trionyx pompignanensis Bergounioux
1933Trionyx rotundiformis Bergounioux
1934Trionyx nopcsai Szalai
1934Trionyx pseudovindobonensis Szalai
1935Trionyx acutiformis Bergounioux
1935Trionyx burdigalensis Bergounioux
1935Trionyx chaubeti Bergounioux
1935Trionyx ciryi Bergounioux
1935Trionyx mourieri Bergounioux
1938Aspideretes jaxarticus Riabinin
1938Plastomenus jaxarticus Riabinin p. 126
1944Trionyx marini Hernández Sampelayo and Bataller
1944Trionyx marini Sampelayo and Bataller
1946Trionychidae Kuhn p. 59
1956Trionyx borkenensis Gramann
1957Platypeltis subcircularis Chow and Yeh
1963Aspideretes sculptus Yeh
1963Platypeltis subcircularis Yeh
1964Trionychidae Estes p. 98
1966Trionyx zakhidovi Khosatzky p. 387
1966Trionychidae Kuhn p. 30
1967Trionychidae Miller p. 226
1969Trionyx kazusensis Otsuka
1970Plastomenus mlynarskii Chkhikvadze
1970Trionychidae Estes and Berberian p. 5
1971Trionychidae Khosatzky and Mlynarski p. 141
1975Trionychidae Gaffney p. 428
1979Trionyx reticulatus Rieppel
1981Trionychidae Thurmond and Jones p. 137
1983Trionyx khosatzkyi Chkhikvadze
1983Trionyx capellinii bulgaricus Khosatzky et al.
1984Plastomenus gabunii Chkhikvadze
1985Aspideretes muyuensis Lei and Ye
1986Trionyx moldaviensis Khosatzky
1987Trionyx ishiharaensis Miura and Uyama
1988Trionychidae Carroll
1988Amyda menneri Chkhikvadze
1988Amyda menneri Chkhikvadze and Shuvalov
1988Trionychidae Holman and Case p. 328
1989Trionyx danovi Chkhikvadze
1989Trionyx jakhimovitchae Chkhikvadze
1993Trionychidae Cvancara and Hoganson p. 15
1995Paleotrionyx jimenezfuentesi Chkhikvadze
1996Trionychidae Frank and Ramus
1999Rafetus yexiangkuii Chkhikvadze
1999Trionychidae Head et al.
2000Rafetus karkhualexandri Chkhikvadze
2000Trionychidae Chkhikvadze
2001Trionychidae Peng et al. p. 26
2002Trionychidae Holroyd and Hutchison p. 181
2003Trionychidae Hutchison and Holroyd
2004Trionychidae Joyce et al.
2006Trionychidae Head et al. p. 378
2007Trionyx ishiharaensis Hirayama p. 150
2007Trionyx ubeensis Hirayama p. 151
2007Trionychidae Karl p. 34
2007Trionychidae Staesche et al.
2008Aspideretes muyuensis Brinkman et al. p. 69
2008Aspideretes sculptus Brinkman et al. p. 71
2008Trionychidae Böhme p. 168
2008Altaytrionyx Chkhikvadze
2008Altaytrionyx burtschaki Chkhikvadze
2008Altaytrionyx devjatkini Chkhikvadze
2008Altaytrionyx gabunii Chkhikvadze
2008Altaytrionyx phiruzae Chkhikvadze
2008Zaisanonyx Chkhikvadze
2008Zaisanonyx jimenezfuentesi Chkhikvadze
2009Trionychidae Hutchison
2012Trionychidae Cadena et al. p. 548
2012Trionychidae Karl et al.
2013Trionychidae Danilov and Vitek
2013Trionychidae Hutchison et al.
2014Trionychidae van Dijk et al.
2017Trionychidae Brinkman et al. p. 2
2017Trionychidae Valdes et al. p. 121

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phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
Testudinata(Oppel 1811)
orderTestudinesBatsch 1788
familyTrionychidaeGray 1825
familyTrionychidaeGray 1825

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

No diagnoses are available
No measurements are available
Composition: phosphaticsubp
Body part: carapacef
Adult length: 100 to < 1000f
Grouping: solitaryf
Environment: brackish, freshwaterf
Locomotion: actively mobilef
Life habit: aquaticf
Diet: piscivoref
Diet 2: carnivoref
Reproduction: oviparousf
Comments: Life habit data corrected back to Ernst and Barbour (1999), see also Rhodin et al., (1993). Quit changing the turtle data. JJH. life habit and diet based on Uetz 2005; originally entered from Ernst and Barbour 1989 as brackish-freshwater piscivore-carnivore.f
Created: 2005-08-25 13:24:04
Modified: 2005-09-09 19:45:41
Source: f = family, subp = subphylum
References: Carroll 1988, Ernst and Barbour 1989

Age range

Maximum range based only on fossils: base of the Valanginian to the top of the Holocene or 139.80000 to 0.00000 Ma
Minimum age of oldest fossil (stem group age): 130.0 Ma

Collections (1106 total)

Oldest occurrences

Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Early/Lower Cretaceous145.0 - 100.5China (Fujian) Trionyx fuchienensis (137596)
Early/Lower Cretaceous145.0 - 100.5Mongolia (Dornogov) Trionychidae sp. (127658)
Valanginian - Late/Upper Hauterivian139.8 - 130.0Japan (Gifu) Trionychidae indet. (50310)
Late/Upper Barremian130.0 - 125.45United Kingdom (England) Trionyx sp. (26791)
Late/Upper Barremian - Aptian130.0 - 113.0Japan (Fukui) Trionychidae indet. (38020)
Barremian - Aptian129.4 - 113.0Thailand (Nakhon Ratchasima) Trionychidae indet. (99337)
Aptian125.0 - 113.0China (Nei Mongol) Trionychidae indet. (46881)
Aptian - Albian125.0 - 100.5Laos (Savannakhet) Trionychidae indet. (118321)
Aptian - Albian125.0 - 100.5China (Nei Mongol) Testudines indet. (48930)
Aptian - Albian125.0 - 100.5China (Heilongjiang) Trionyx jixiensis (169467)
Aptian - Albian125.0 - 100.5Mongolia (Omnogov) Trionychidae indet. (154401)
Albian113.0 - 100.5USA (Montana) Trionyx sp. (50696)
Late/Upper Albian105.3 - 99.6USA (Nevada) Trionychidae indet. (181586)
Late/Upper Albian - Cenomanian105.3 - 93.9Uzbekistan (Navoi) Trionyx dissolutus (58471)
Late/Upper Albian - Early/Lower Cenomanian105.3 - 93.5USA (Utah) Trionychidae indet. (22679)
Cenomanian100.5 - 93.9Uzbekistan (Karakalpakistan) Trionyx dissolutus (64098)
Cenomanian100.5 - 93.9Kyrgyzstan (Osh) Dogania maortuensis (58483)
Cenomanian100.5 - 93.9Canada (Alberta) Trionychidae indet. (181028)
Cenomanian - Early/Lower Turonian100.5 - 89.3Mongolia (Bayankhongor) Trionychidae indet. (154410)
Cenomanian - Santonian100.5 - 83.6Mongolia (Dornogov) Chelonia indet. (130795) Trionychidae indet. (76061 108342 118167 127664 127667 154412) Trionychidae indet., Trionyx baynshirensis (79702) Trionyx sp. (127662)