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Reptilia - Testudines

Cryptodira was named by Cope (1868). It is extant. It was considered monophyletic by Joyce (2007), Danilov and Parham (2008), Averianov et al. (2008), Pérez-García and Ortega (2011), Tong et al. (2012), Karl et al. (2012), Karl et al. (2012), Karl et al. (2012), Karl and Nyhuis (2012), Danilov and Vitek (2013) and Pérez-García and Murelaga (2013) and Danilov et al. (2013).

It was reranked as the superfamily Cryptodira by Hay (1902) and Hay (1908); it was reranked as the infraorder Cryptodira by Andrews (1906), Gaffney (1975), Gaffney (1975), Gaffney (1975), Gaffney et al. (2006), Karl (2007), Averianov et al. (2008), Karl et al. (2012), Karl et al. (2012), Karl and Nyhuis (2012) and Karl et al. (2012); it was corrected as Cryptodiri by Jaekel (1911); it was reranked as the unranked clade Cryptodira by Lydekker (1889), Huene (1954), Sullivan et al. (1988), Hirayama and Hikida (1998), Gaffney et al. (1998), Lynch and Parham (2003), Head et al. (2006), Joyce and Lyson (2010), Parham and Pyenson (2010), Knauss et al. (2011), Cadena et al. (2012), Puntener et al. (2014) and Zvonok and Danilov (2017).

It was assigned to Testudinata by Lydekker (1889); to Thecophora by Hay (1902), Andrews (1906) and Hay (1908); to Thecophora by Gadow (1898) and Roxo (1937); to Testudinata by Estes (1964); to Chelonia by Woodward (1898), Case (1904), Lambe (1908), Swinton (1934), Olson (1947), Delair (1958), Zangerl (1960), Miller (1967), Thurmond and Jones (1981) and Carroll (1988); to Casichelydia by Sullivan et al. (1988), Hirayama and Hikida (1998) and Gaffney et al. (1998); to Casichelydia by Gaffney (1975), Gaffney (1975), Gaffney (1975) and Gaffney et al. (2006); to Testudinata by Hutchison et al. (2013); to Chelonii by de la Fuente et al. (1995), Lapparent de Broin (2002), Hutchison and Holroyd (2003), Hervet (2004), Hervet (2006), Karl et al. (2006), Karl (2007), Staesche et al. (2007), Pérez-García et al. (2013) and Vlachos et al. (2014); to Eucryptodira by Parham (2005), Joyce (2007), Pérez-García et al. (2008), Pérez-García and Ortega (2011) and Puntener et al. (2014); to Testudinata by Cope (1871), Cope (1875), Zittel (1890), Baur (1893), Stefano (1903), Osborn (1904), Jaekel (1911), Kuhn (1946), Huene (1954) and Brinkman et al. (2016); to Testudines by Karl (1996), Lynch and Parham (2003), Head et al. (2006), Danilov and Parham (2008), Joyce and Lyson (2010), Parham and Pyenson (2010), Knauss et al. (2011), Cadena et al. (2012), Tong et al. (2012), Pérez-García and Murelaga (2013) and Zvonok and Danilov (2017); and to Testudines by Kuhn (1966), Antunes and de Broin (1977), Meylan and Auffenberg (1986), Nicholls (1988), Holman and Case (1988), Megirian (1992), Gaffney et al. (1992), Köhler (1995), Gaffney (1996), Karl and Tichy (1999), Meylan and Sterrer (2000), Weems and George (2001), Peng et al. (2001), Takahashi et al. (2003), Brinkman (2003), Joyce et al. (2004), Parmley et al. (2006), Averianov et al. (2008), Karl et al. (2012), Karl et al. (2012), Karl et al. (2012), Karl and Nyhuis (2012), Karl et al. (2012), Bourque (2013), Danilov and Vitek (2013), Vremir (2013), Danilov et al. (2013), Vlachos and Tsoukala (2014), van Dijk et al. (2014), Bourque et al. (2015), Vlachos and Tsoukala (2016), Vlachos and Delfino (2016), Garcia et al. (2016), Haidr and Acosta Hospitaleche (2017), Turvey et al. (2017), Cadena et al. (2017) and Pérez-García et al. (2017).

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1868Cryptodira Cope
1871Cryptodira Cope p. 235
1875Cryptodira Cope p. 16
1889Cryptodira Lydekker p. 25
1890Cryptodira Zittel p. 449
1893Cryptodira Baur p. 672
1898Cryptodira Gadow p. 20
1898Cryptodira Woodward p. 141
1902Cryptodira Hay p. 439
1903Cryptodira Stefano p. 68
1904Cryptodira Case p. 63
1904Cryptodira Osborn p. 100
1906Cryptodira Andrews p. 277
1908Cryptodira Hay p. 126
1908Cryptodira Lambe
1911Cryptodiri Jaekel p. 186
1934Cryptodira Swinton p. 71
1937Cryptodira Roxo p. 43
1946Cryptodira Kuhn p. 58
1947Cryptodira Olson pp. 44, 45
1954Cryptodira Huene p. 24
1958Cryptodira Delair p. 54
1960Cryptodira Zangerl p. 285
1964Cryptodira Estes p. 97
1966Cryptodira Kuhn p. 24
1967Cryptodira Miller p. 226
1975Cryptodira Gaffney p. 2
1977Cryptodira Antunes and de Broin
1980Charitonyx tajanikolaevae Chkhikvadze
1981Cryptodira Thurmond and Jones p. 121
1986Cryptodira Meylan and Auffenberg p. 280
1988Cryptodira Carroll
1988Cryptodira Holman and Case p. 328
1988Cryptodira Nicholls p. 185
1988Cryptodira Sullivan et al. p. 2
1992Cryptodira Gaffney et al.
1992Cryptodira Megirian
1995Cryptodira Köhler
1995Cryptodira de la Fuente et al.
1996Cryptodira Gaffney
1996Cryptodira Karl
1998Cryptodira Gaffney et al. p. 3
1998Cryptodira Hirayama and Hikida p. 70
1999Cryptodira Karl and Tichy p. 63
2000Cryptodira Meylan and Sterrer
2001Cryptodira Peng et al. p. 23
2001Cryptodira Weems and George p. 572
2002Cryptodira Lapparent de Broin
2003Cryptodira Brinkman
2003Cryptodira Hutchison and Holroyd
2003Cryptodira Lynch and Parham p. 22
2003Cryptodira Takahashi et al.
2004Cryptodira Hervet
2004Cryptodira Joyce et al.
2005Cryptodira Parham p. 75
2006Cryptodira Gaffney et al. p. 26
2006Cryptodira Head et al. p. 378
2006Cryptodira Hervet
2006Cryptodira Karl et al.
2006Cryptodira Parmley et al. p. 344
2007Cryptodira Joyce
2007Cryptodira Karl p. 34
2007Cryptodira Staesche et al.
2008Cryptodira Averianov et al.
2008Cryptodira Danilov and Parham
2008Cryptodira Pérez-García et al.
2010Cryptodira Joyce and Lyson
2010Cryptodira Parham and Pyenson p. 232
2011Cryptodira Knauss et al.
2011Cryptodira Pérez-García and Ortega
2012Cryptodira Cadena et al. p. 540
2012Cryptodira Karl et al.
2012Cryptodira Karl et al.
2012Cryptodira Karl et al.
2012Cryptodira Karl et al.
2012Cryptodira Tong et al.
2013Cryptodira Bourque
2013Cryptodira Danilov et al.
2013Cryptodira Danilov and Vitek
2013Cryptodira Hutchison et al.
2013Cryptodira Pérez-García et al.
2013Cryptodira Vremir
2014Cryptodira Puntener et al.
2014Cryptodira Vlachos et al.
2014Cryptodira van Dijk et al.
2015Cryptodira Bourque et al.
2016Cryptodira Brinkman et al.
2016Cryptodira Garcia et al.
2016Cryptodira Vlachos and Delfino
2016Cryptodira Vlachos and Tsoukala
2017Cryptodira Cadena et al.
2017Cryptodira Haidr and Acosta Hospitaleche p. 2
2017Cryptodira Pérez-García et al.
2017Cryptodira Turvey et al.
2017Cryptodira Zvonok and Danilov p. 492

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phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
Testudinata(Oppel 1811)
orderTestudinesBatsch 1788

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

O. P. Hay 1908Thecophorous turtles having the carapace composed of neurals, costals, and peripherals. The neurals in a few cases greatly red\iced. The plastron having the epiplastra in contact with the hyoplastra. Entoplastron occasionally wanting. Mesoplastrals, so far as known, never present. Temporal roof varying from complete to obsolete. Pterygoids extending backward between the basisphenoid and the quadrates. Neck bending in a sigmoid curve in a vertical plane and capable of being retracted between the scapulae. Elements of the pelvis never suturally joined to the carapace and the plastron.
E. S. Gaffney 1975Skull with trochlear surface for cartilago transiliens developed on processus trochlearis oticum, never on process of ptery- goid; pterygoid extending posteriorly between quadrate and braincase; hyomandibular nerve traversing cranioquadrate space in canalis caver- nosus; mandibular artery usually exiting from foramen nervi trigemini; epipterygoid usually present, when absent pterygoid cartilage per- sistent, resulting in fossa cartilaginis epiptery- goidei;nodevelopmentofhemisphericalarticular on lower jaw; foramen palatinum posterius in floor of fossa orbitalis; vidian nerve exiting in or near foramen palatinum posterius (absent in cheloniids); descending process of prefrontal
meeting vomer ventromedially.
Head withdrawn by vertical flexure of neck in
advanced forms with attendant development of widely spaced zygapophyses, reduced transverse processes, and formed central articulations; these features absent or slightly developed in primitive members; pelvis not suturally united to carapace and plastron; cervical (nuchal) scute usually present; intergular scute absent in advanced forms, present primitively; mesoplastra absent in advanced forms, present in primitive members.
No measurements are available
Composition: phosphaticsubp
Environment: freshwatersubo
Locomotion: actively mobilec
Life habit: aquaticsubo
Diet: omnivoresubo
Reproduction: oviparoussubo
Comments: life habit and diet based on Uetz 2005subo
Created: 2005-08-26 14:49:00
Modified: 2005-08-26 16:49:00
Source: subo = suborder, c = class, subp = subphylum
References: Uetz 2005, Carroll 1988, Hendy et al. 2009

Age range

Maximum range based only on fossils: base of the Rhaetian to the top of the Holocene or 208.50000 to 0.00000 Ma
Minimum age of oldest fossil (stem group age): 201.3 Ma

Collections (2744 total)

Oldest occurrences

Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Rhaetian208.5 - 201.3Italy (Lombardy) Emydidae indet. (38083)
Sinemurian - Pliensbachian199.3 - 182.7USA (Arizona) Cryptodira indet. (51898)
Late/Upper Bathonian167.7 - 164.7United Kingdom (England) C. histomorph II (39075) Cryptodira indet. (57124 57125)
Oxfordian163.5 - 157.3China (Chongqing (=Sichuan)) Yehguia tatsuensis (127732)
Oxfordian163.5 - 157.3China (Sichuan) Chengyuchelys dashanpuensis, Chengyuchelys sp., Chengyuchelyidae indet., Chengyuchelys baenoides, Chelonia indet. (24883) Hongkongochelys yehi (139603) Sinaspideretes wimani (179921)
Late/Upper Jurassic163.5 - 145.0China (Sichuan) Sinaspideretes wimani (131872)
Kimmeridgian157.3 - 152.1Germany (Lower Saxony) Eucryptodira indet. (153667)
Kimmeridgian157.3 - 152.1Portugal (Leiria) Peltochelys duchastelli (24563)
Early/Lower Kimmeridgian155.7 - 150.8United Kingdom (England) Enaliochelys chelonia (167751)
Late/Upper Kimmeridgian - Early/Lower Tithonian155.7 - 145.0Portugal Peltochelys duchastelli (138303)
Tithonian - Berriasian152.1 - 139.8Thailand (Mukdahan) Cryptodira indet. (78978)
Middle Tithonian - Late/Upper Tithonian150.8 - 145.0Portugal (Mafra) Hylaeochelys kappa (153564)
Berriasian145.0 - 139.8United Kingdom (England) Cryptodira indet. (52674) Hylaeochelys latiscutata (127480) Pleurosternon latiscutatum, Pleurosternon emarginatum (127481)
Berriasian145.0 - 139.8Germany (Lower Saxony) Peltochelys duchastelli (138301)
Berriasian145.0 - 139.8Morocco (Figuig) Cryptodira indet. (45726)
Berriasian - Valanginian145.0 - 132.9China (Shandong) Ordosemys leios, Sinemys lens, Scutemys tecta, Sinochelys applanata (47070)
Berriasian - Barremian145.0 - 125.0China (Liaoning) Ordosemys liaoxiensis (79657)
Early/Lower Cretaceous145.0 - 100.5Spain (Castilla y Leon) Testudines indet. (64406)
Early/Lower Cretaceous145.0 - 100.5China (Nei Mongol) Sinemys brevispinus (46936)
Early/Lower Cretaceous145.0 - 100.5China (Xinjiang) Dracochelys bicuspis (61095)