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Pleurodira (sideneck turtle)

Reptilia - Testudines

Pleurodira was named by Cope (1865) [also said to be 1864]. It is extant. It was considered monophyletic by Joyce (2007) and Pérez-García (2017).

It was reranked as the unranked clade Pleurodira by Lydekker (1889), Huene (1954), Cadena et al. (2012) and Cadena and Joyce (2015); it was reranked as the superfamily Pleurodira by Hay (1902) and Hay (1908); it was reranked as the infraorder Pleurodira by Andrews (1906), Gaffney (1975) and Gaffney et al. (2006).

It was assigned to Testudinata by Lydekker (1889); to Thecophora by Hay (1902), Andrews (1906) and Hay (1908); to Thecophora by Gadow (1898) and Roxo (1937); to Testudinata by Cope (1871), Cope (1875), Zittel (1890), Baur (1893), Osborn (1904), Kuhn (1946), Zangerl (1948), Huene (1954) and Haas (1978); to Chelonia by Woodward (1898), Swinton (1934), Olson (1947), Delair (1958), Antunes (1964), Miller (1967), Thurmond and Jones (1981) and Carroll (1988); to Casichelydia by Gaffney (1975) and Gaffney et al. (2006); to Chelonia by Cadena et al. (2012); to Chelonii by Lapparent de Broin and Molnar (2001), de la Fuente and Iturralde-Vinent (2001), de la Fuente and Bona (2002), Pérez-García et al. (2013), Pérez-García et al. (2013) and Pérez-García and Lapparent de Broin (2013); to Testudines by Joyce (2007) and Puntener et al. (2014); to Panpleurodira by Danilov and Parham (2008) and Cadena and Joyce (2015); and to Testudines by Kuhn (1966), Wood (1976), Gaffney and Wood (2002), Joyce et al. (2004), Hutchison et al. (2004), Vremir (2013), Weems and Knight (2013), van Dijk et al. (2014), Pérez-García and Chapman (2017), Pérez-García (2017) and Pérez-García and Ortega (2018).

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1865Pleurodira Cope
1871Pleurodira Cope p. 236
1875Pleurodira Cope p. 17
1889Pleurodira Lydekker p. 158
1890Pleurodira Zittel p. 449
1893Pleurodira Baur p. 672
1898Pleurodira Gadow p. 21
1898Pleurodira Woodward p. 141
1902Pleurodira Hay p. 436
1904Pleurodira Osborn p. 100
1906Pleurodira Andrews p. 289
1908Pleurodira Hay p. 102
1934Pleurodira Swinton p. 75
1937Pleurodira Roxo p. 43
1946Pleurodira Kuhn p. 58
1947Pleurodira Olson pp. 44, 45
1948Pleurodira Zangerl p. 25
1954Pleurodira Huene p. 24
1958Pleurodira Delair p. 55
1964Pleurodira Antunes p. 135
1966Pleurodira Kuhn p. 30
1967Pleurodira Miller p. 225
1975Pleurodira Gaffney p. 425
1976Pleurodira Wood p. 2
1978Pleurodira Haas
1981Pleurodira Thurmond and Jones p. 120
1988Pleurodira Carroll
2001Pleurodira Lapparent de Broin and Molnar
2001Pleurodira de la Fuente and Iturralde-Vinent
2002Pleurodira Gaffney and Wood p. 2
2002Pleurodira de la Fuente and Bona p. 78
2004Pleurodira Hutchison et al. p. 39
2004Pleurodira Joyce et al.
2006Pleurodira Gaffney et al. p. 26
2007Pleurodira Joyce
2008Pleurodira Danilov and Parham
2012Pleurodira Cadena et al. p. 549
2013Pleurodira Pérez-García and Lapparent de Broin
2013Pleurodira Pérez-García et al.
2013Pleurodira Pérez-García et al.
2013Pleurodira Vremir
2013Pleurodira Weems and Knight p. 290
2014Pleurodira Puntener et al.
2014Pleurodira van Dijk et al.
2015Pleurodira Cadena and Joyce
2017Pleurodira Pérez-García p. 2
2017Pleurodira Pérez-García and Chapman p. 2
2018Pleurodira Pérez-García and Ortega

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phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
Testudinata(Oppel 1811)
orderTestudinesBatsch 1788

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

O. P. Hay 1908Thecophorous turtles having a carapace composed of costals and peripheral bones and usually a series of neurals and a plastron in which the epiplastra are in contact with the hyoplastra. Mesoplastra present or absent. Intergular scutes developt, the inframarginals wanting. Temporal roof of the skull varying from nearly complete to nearly obsolete. Pterygoids not extending backward between the quadrates and the basisphenoid; broad, with the outer border uprolled. Neck bending sideways; not capable of being withdrawn between the scapulae. Ilia suturally joined to the eighth costals; the pubes and the ischia, to the xiphiplastra.
E. S. Gaffney 1975Casichelydians with trochlear sur- face for cartilago transiliens developed on lateral process of pterygoid; processus trochlearis pterygoidei never on otic chamber; joint surface of trochlea consisting of infolded oral mucosa rather than true synovial capsule; quadrate send- ing process medially to braincase elements, ptery- goid rarely extending posteriorly but in any case not preventing quadrate contact with braincase; hyomandibular' nerve contained in own canal separate from canalis cavernosus; mandibular artery failing to exit from foramen nervi tri- gemini but branching off stapedial artery after latter leaves otic region of skull to enter temporal fossa; epipterygoid not ossifying, epipterygoid cartilage apparently absent or greatly reduced in adult, fossa cartilaginis epipterygoidei therefore greatly reduced or absent; articular usually hemi- spherical; foramen palatinum posterius behind
orbit; descending process of prefrontal reduced, not meeting vomer ventromedially.
Head withdrawn by horizontal flexure of neck in advanced forms with attendant development of narrowly spaced zygapophyses, laterally developed transverse processes, and formed central articu- lations; pelvis suturally united to carapace and plastron; cervical (nuchal) scute, intergular scute and mesoplastra present or absent.
No measurements are available
Composition: phosphaticsubp
Environment: freshwatersubo
Locomotion: actively mobilec
Life habit: amphibioussubo
Diet: omnivoresubo
Reproduction: oviparoussubo
Comments: life habit and diet based on Uetz 2005subo
Created: 2005-08-26 14:50:50
Modified: 2005-08-26 16:50:50
Source: subo = suborder, c = class, subp = subphylum
References: Uetz 2005, Carroll 1988, Hendy et al. 2009

Age range

Maximum range based only on fossils: base of the Tithonian to the top of the Holocene or 152.10000 to 0.00000 Ma
Minimum age of oldest fossil (stem group age): 145.0 Ma

Collections (556 total)

Oldest occurrences

Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Tithonian152.1 - 145.0Ethiopia (Shewa) Pelomedusidae indet. (48832)
Berriasian145.0 - 139.8Morocco (Figuig) Pleurodira indet., Araripemydidae indet., Taquetochelys sp. (45726)
Berriasian - Hauterivian145.0 - 129.4Brazil (Paraíba) Araripemydidae indet. (58790)
Early/Lower Cretaceous145.0 - 100.5Brazil (Ceará) Pelomedusidae indet. (59355)
Cretaceous145.0 - 66.0Argentina (Mendoza) Yaminuechelys sp., Prochelidella sp. (200126)
Cretaceous145.0 - 66.0Tunisia (Gafsa) Gafsachelys phosphaticus, Gafsachelys neurirregularis, Eusarkia rotundiformis (151620)
Late/Upper Valanginian140.2 - 136.4United Kingdom (England) Platemys dixoni (52258)
Late/Upper Valanginian140.2 - 136.4Colombia Podocnemidoidea indet. (118389)
Hauterivian - Barremian132.9 - 125.0Libya (Yafran) Pelomedusidae indet. (69791)
Late/Upper Barremian130.0 - 125.45Brazil (Alagoas) Pelomedusoides indet. (152472)
Late/Upper Barremian130.0 - 125.45Spain (Cuenca) Pelomedusidae indet. (61319)
Barremian129.4 - 125.0Brazil (Alagoas) Atolchelys lepida (135830)
Aptian125.0 - 113.0Brazil (Ceará) Araripemys sp., Araripemys arturi (128566)
Aptian125.0 - 113.0Niger (Agadez) Teneremys lapparenti, Pelomedusidae indet. (37200)
Aptian125.0 - 113.0Malawi (Northern) Platycheloides nyasae (38911 89853)
Aptian - Albian125.0 - 100.5Brazil (Ceará) Pelomedusoides indet. (132359)
Aptian - Albian125.0 - 100.5Argentina (Chubut) Prochelidella cerrobarcinae (26372)
Aptian - Albian125.0 - 100.5Niger (Agadez) Laganemys tenerensis (133668)
Late/Upper Aptian122.46 - 112.03Niger (Agadez) Araripemys sp., Teneremys lapparenti, Taquetochelys decorata (77189)
Albian113.0 - 100.5Niger (Agadez) Pelomedusidae indet. (28569)