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Reptilia - Ichthyosauridae

Sister genera

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Synonymy list
YearName and author
1818Ichthyosaurus Koenig
1819Proteosaurus Home p. 212
1822Ichthyosaurus Parkinson p. 296
1824Ichthyosaurus coniformis Harlan
1825Ichthyosaurus latifrons Konig figs. Pl. 19, fig. 250
1826Ichthyosaurus Fitzinger p. 9
1830Gryphus Wagler p. 60
1840Ichthyosaurus giganteus Leach
1840Ichthyosaurus Owen p. 86
1840Ichthyosaurus latifrons Owen p. 122
1840Ichthyosaurus thyreospondylus Owen p. 124
1840Ichthyosaurus trigonus Owen p. 124
1845Ichthyosaurus Meyer p. 281
1849Ichthyosaurus d'Orbigny p. 209
1851Ichthyosaurus latifrons Mantell p. 385
1851Ichthyosaurus posthumus Wagner p. 702
1854Ichthyosaurus crassicostatus Theodori
1854Ichthyosaurus hexagonus Theodori
1854Ichthyosaurus planartus Theodori
1854Ichthyosaurus sinuatus Theodori p. 50
1856Ichthyosaurus nasimowii Fahrenkohl
1856Ichthyosaurus amalthei Quenstedt
1858Ichthyosaurus zollerianus Quenstedt p. 371
1861Ichthyosaurus Owen p. 220
1861Ichthyosaurus normanniae Valenciennes p. 101
1861Ichthyosaurus cuvieri Valenciennes p. 273
1862Ichthyosaurus leucopetraeus Burmeister and Giebel
1869Ichthyosaurus angustidens Seeley
1869Ichthyosaurus bonneyi Seeley
1869Ichthyosaurus platymerus Seeley
1869Ichthyosaurus walkeri Seeley
1869Ichthyosaurus chalarodeirus Seeley p. 106
1871Ichthyosaurus aequalis Phillips
1871Ichthyosaurus dilatatus Phillips
1871Ichthyosaurus thyreospondylus Phillips pp. 307, 337
1871Ichthyosaurus advena Phillips p. 339
1871Ichthyosaurus ovalis Phillips p. 339
1876Ichthyosaurus biscissus Wurstemberger
1879Ichthyosaurus indicus Lydekker p. 28 figs. Pl. 5:6-7
1881Ichthyosaurus brachyspondylus Owen p. 127
1883Ichthyosaurus hildesiensis Koken
1885Ichthyosaurus aduncus Quenstedt
1885Ichthyosaurus lacunosae Quenstedt
1885Ichthyosaurus torulosi Quenstedt
1886Ichthyosaurus Günther p. 442
1886Ichthyosaurus pottsi Hector
1888Ichthyosaurus ceramensis Martin
1889Ichthyosaurus Lydekker p. 12
1889Ichthyosaurus indicus Lydekker p. 22
1889Ichthyosaurus trigonus Lydekker p. 22 figs. 12-14
1889Ichthyosaurus ovalis Lydekker p. 29 fig. 15
1889Ichthyosaurus latifrons Lydekker p. 89 figs. 31-33
1889Ichthyosaurus hectori Lydekker p. 355
1890Ichthyosaurus quenstedti Zittel
1891Ichthyosaurus arietis Fraas
1891Ichthyosaurus psilonoti Fraas
1892Ichthyosaurus numismalis Fraas
1893Ichthyosaurus bodenbenderi Dames p. 23 figs. Pl. 1 (1, 2)
1895Ichthyosaurus immanis Phillipi
1901Ichthyosaurus bambergensis Bauer
1902Proteosaurus Hay p. 462
1903Ichthyosaurus volgensis Kasansky
1904Eurypterygius Jaekel
1908Ichthyosaurus kokeni Broili
1908Ichthyosaurus Merriam p. 88
1908Ichthyosaurus hectori Merriam p. 154
1909Ichthyosaurus steleodon Bogolubow
1914Ichthyosaurus hectori Chapman p. 277
1939Ichthyosaurus torrei Torre and Cuervo
1942Ichthyosaurus franciscanus Camp p. 362 figs. 1, 2A
1942Ichthyosaurus californicus Camp p. 367 figs. 3, 4
1949Ichthyosaurus saladensis Rusconi
1949Ichthyosaurus sanjuanensis Rusconi
1960Macropterygius trigonus Delair p. 64
1960Macropterygius dilatatus Delair p. 65
1960Macropterygius ovalis Delair p. 65
1960Macropterygius thyreospondylus Delair p. 66
1960Leptopterygius latifrons Delair p. 73
1967Ichthyosaurus Appleby p. 137
1969Ichthyosaurus hygrodeirus Seeley p. 106
1974Ichthyosaurus McGowan p. 6
1979Protoichthyosaurus prosostealis Appleby p. 942
1982Tibetosaurus Dong
1982Tibetosaurus tingjiensis Young et al.
1988Ichthyosaurus Carroll
1994Macropterygius trigonus Frickhinger p. 249 fig. 514
1999Ichthyosaurus Motani p. 484
2000Ichthyosaurus Maisch and Matzke pp. 74, 98
2000Ichthyosaurus Sander
2002Ichthyosaurus Sepkoski, Jr.
2003Ichthyosaurus McGowan and Motani
2008Ichthyosaurus Maisch et al.
2010Ichthyosaurus Maisch
2011Ichthyosaurus Fischer et al.
2012Ichthyosaurus Bennett et al.
2012Ichthyosaurus Fischer et al.
2013Ichthyosaurus Fischer et al.
2014Ichthyosaurus Arkhangelsky and Zverkov
2015Ichthyosaurus Brusatte et al.
2015Ichthyosaurus Lomax and Massare
2018Ichthyosaurus Massare and Lomax

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phylumChordataHaeckel 1874
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
Ichthyopterygia(Owen 1840)
Ichthyosauria(de Blainville 1835)
NeoichthyosauriaSander 2000
familyIchthyosauridaeBonaparte 1841
genusIchthyosaurusKoenig 1818

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

M. W. Maisch and A. T. Matzke 2000"Moderately large to large ichthyosaurs, skull length between 30 and 60 cm, quadratojugal with long processus quadratus, humuerus robust and short, forefin with four primary digits and postaxial accessories, fin elements form a completely closed polygonal mosaic pattern in the fore- and hindfin, except the distal tips, coracoid with anterior and posterior notches, about 44 presacral vertebrae, neural spines of thoracal vertebral column long."
No measurements are available
Composition: hydroxyapatiteo
Environment: marineo
Locomotion: actively mobileo
Life habit: nektonico
Diet: carnivoreo
Reproduction: viviparouso
Created: 2009-07-20 06:07:40
Modified: 2010-02-23 00:20:57
Source: o = order
Reference: Kiessling 2004

Age range: base of the Lacian to the top of the Late/Upper Aptian or 221.50000 to 112.03000 Ma

Collections (72 total)

Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Norian228.0 - 208.5USA (Nevada) I. sp. (100391 100403)
Lacian221.5 - 215.56USA (Nevada) I. sp. (100412)
Rhaetian208.5 - 201.3Belgium (Gaume) I. sp. (139198 139202)
Rhaetian208.5 - 201.3Germany (Baden-Württemberg) I. rhaeticus (91635) I. sp. (131422)
Rhaetian208.5 - 201.3France (Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur Region) I. sp. (31773 31774)
Rhaetian208.5 - 201.3France (Franche-Comte) I. sp. (90876)
Rhaetian208.5 - 201.3France (Burgundy) I. costatus (144759)
Rhaetian208.5 - 201.3United Kingdom (England) I. sp. (96616 96617 122362)
Rhaetian - Hettangian208.5 - 199.3United Kingdom (England) I. intermedius (96608 96611) I. tenuirostris (96609) I. tenuirostris, I. intermedius (96606 96607)
Hettangian201.3 - 199.3United Kingdom (England) I. chiropolyostinus (153783) I. conununis (105080) I. sp., I. communis (142744) I. tenuirostris, I. communis, I. intermedius (149321)
Early/Lower Hettangian201.3 - 196.5United Kingdom (England) I. chirostrongulostinus, I. chiroparamekostinus, I. larkini (110213) I. communis, Protoichthyosaurus prosostealis, I. larkini, I. somersetensis (119083) I. sp. (113956)
Hettangian - Pliensbachian201.3 - 182.7United Kingdom (England) I. chirostrongulostinus (153784) I. comminis (98151) I. communis (98150)
Early/Lower Jurassic201.3 - 174.1United Kingdom (Somerset) I. latimanus (198904)
Early/Lower Jurassic201.3 - 174.1United Kingdom (England) I. chiroparamekostinus (153787) I. chirostrongulostinus (153786)
Sinemurian199.3 - 190.8Canada (British Columbia) I. sp. (4884)
Early/Lower Sinemurian196.5 - 189.6Switzerland (Aargau) I. communis (142834)
Early/Lower Sinemurian196.5 - 189.6United Kingdom (Scotland) I. communis (165070)
Early/Lower Sinemurian196.5 - 189.6United Kingdom I. breviceps (139854)
Late/Upper Sinemurian196.5 - 189.6Belgium I. communis (176443)
Late/Upper Sinemurian196.5 - 189.6Belgium (Luxembourg) I. communis (188429)
Semicostatum196.5 - 189.6United Kingdom I. communis, I. breviceps, I. conybeari (42202)
Pliensbachian - Cenomanian190.8 - 93.9USA (California) I. californicus (185384) I. franciscanus (102282)
Davoei189.6 - 183.0United Kingdom (England) I. sp. (130760)
Early/Lower Pliensbachian189.6 - 183.0United Kingdom (England) I. anningae (176440) I. communis (139701)
Early/Lower Toarcian183.0 - 182.0France I. longifrons (122732)
Falciferum183.0 - 182.0Germany I. longipes (139781)
Falciferum - Bifrons183.0 - 175.6United Kingdom (England) I. acutirostris (90459)
Toarcian182.7 - 174.1Greenland I. sp. (162090)
Aalenian174.1 - 170.3Chile (Antofagasta) I. sp. (172177)
Callovian166.1 - 163.5United Kingdom (England) I. dilatatus (100518)
Early/Lower Callovian164.7 - 161.2Chile (Antofagasta) I. quenstedti (170680) I. sp. (172173)
Late/Upper Callovian164.7 - 161.2France (Nord-Pas-de-Calais) I. sp. (144756)
Late/Upper Callovian164.7 - 161.2Chile (Antofagasta) I. sp. (172174)
Late/Upper Callovian164.7 - 161.2United Kingdom (England) I. dilatatus (92052)
Oxfordian163.5 - 157.3United Kingdom (England) I. dilatatus (100669)
Oxfordian163.5 - 157.3Chile (Antofagasta) I. sp. (172175)
Late/Upper Jurassic163.5 - 145.0Switzerland (Baselland) I. sp. (48614)
Kimmeridgian157.3 - 152.1France (Poitou-Charentes) I. sp. (70550)
Kimmeridgian157.3 - 152.1Chile (Antofagasta) I. sp. (172176)
Kimmeridgian - Early/Lower Tithonian157.3 - 145.0Mexico (Coahuila) I. sp. (144332)
Late/Upper Kimmeridgian155.7 - 150.8France (Aquitaine) I. sp. (94532)
Late/Upper Kimmeridgian155.7 - 150.8United Kingdom (England) I. enthekiodon (119504) I. sp. (70996)
Tithonian152.1 - 145.0France (Nord-Pas-de-Calais) I. entheciodon, I. thyreospondylus (48880) I. thyreospondylus (48879 65030) I. trigonus (53967)
Berriasian145.0 - 139.8United Kingdom (England) I. sp. (77058)
Early/Lower Hauterivian136.4 - 130.0Germany I. sp. (91586)
Hauterivian132.9 - 129.4Russian Federation (Ulyanovsk Oblast) I. steleodon (172585)
Late/Upper Aptian122.46 - 112.03United Kingdom (England) I. sp. (58095)