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Squamata (squamates)

Reptilia - Squamata

Taxonomy
Squamata was named by Oppel (1811). It is extant. It was considered monophyletic by Estes et al. (1988) and Konishi et al. (2012) and Evans and Wang (2012).

It was reranked as the unranked clade Squamata by Fitzinger (1826), Norell and de Queiroz (1991) and Nicholls and Meckert (2002); it was reranked as the superorder Squamata by Osborn (1903), Osborn (1904) and Sullivan (1986); it was synonymized subjectively with Lyognatha by Jaekel (1910); it was misspelled as Squamati by Quenstedt (1882), Woodward (1898), Hay (1902), Osborn (1903), Andrews (1906), Lambe (1908), Swinton (1934), Roxo (1937), Kuhn (1946), Huene (1954), Kuhn (1966), Schatzinger (1980), Thurmond and Jones (1981), Gardiner (1982), Holman (1982), Carroll (1982), Stritzke (1983), Benton (1985), Estes et al. (1988), Carroll (1988), Holman et al. (1991), Lingham-Soliar (1995), Gao and Fox (1996), Frank and Ramus (1996), Peng et al. (2001), Sepkoski (2002), Meyer and Zardoya (2003), Krause et al. (2003), Datta and Ray (2006), Venczel and Stiuca (2008), Böhme (2010), Fernicola and Albino (2012), Konishi et al. (2012), Evans and Wang (2012) and Palci et al. (2013).

It was assigned to Monopnoa by Fitzinger (1826); to Sauri by Quenstedt (1882); to Diapsida by Osborn (1903), Osborn (1903) and Osborn (1904); to Parapsida by Roxo (1937); to Neosauromorpha by Huene (1954); to Lepidosauria by Thurmond and Jones (1981), Carroll (1982), Stritzke (1983) and Sullivan (1986); to Lepidosauria by Gardiner (1982), Estes et al. (1988), Norell and de Queiroz (1991) and Nicholls and Meckert (2002); to Lepidosauria by Kuhn (1966), Benton (1985), Carroll (1988), Gao and Fox (1996), Peng et al. (2001), Meyer and Zardoya (2003), Krause et al. (2003), Datta and Ray (2006) and Evans and Wang (2012); and to Reptilia by Woodward (1898), Hay (1902), Andrews (1906), Lambe (1908), Swinton (1934), Kuhn (1946), Schatzinger (1980), Holman (1982), Holman et al. (1991), Lingham-Soliar (1995), Frank and Ramus (1996), Sepkoski (2002), Venczel and Stiuca (2008), Böhme (2010), Fernicola and Albino (2012), Konishi et al. (2012) and Palci et al. (2013).

View classification of included taxa

Synonyms
Synonymy list
YearName and author
1811Squamata Oppel p. 14
1826Squamata Fitzinger p. 4
1842Iguana haueri Meyer
1882Squamati Quenstedt p. 155
1898Squamata Woodward p. 141
1899Saniwa australis Ameghino
1902Squamata Hay p. 463
1903Squamata Osborn p. 276
1904Squamata Osborn p. 114
1906Squamata Andrews p. 306
1908Squamata Lambe
1928Harpagosaurus excedens Gilmore p. 157 fig. 98
1934Squamata Swinton p. 16
1937Squamata Roxo p. 43
1942Haplodontosaurus Gilmore p. 164
1942Haplodontosaurus excedens Gilmore p. 164
1946Squamata Kuhn p. 60
1954Squamata Huene p. 61
1964Yabeinosaurus youngi Hoffstetter
1966Squamata Kuhn p. 44
1978Acanthurus haueri Schultz p. 213
1980Squamata Schatzinger
1981Squamata Thurmond and Jones p. 148
1982Squamata Carroll p. 183
1982Squamata Gardiner p. 228
1982Squamata Holman
1983Haplodontosaurus Estes
1983Yabeinosaurus youngi Estes p. 63
1983Squamata Stritzke
1985Squamata Benton p. 157
1986Squamata Sullivan p. 109
1986Paikasisaurus Yadagiri p. 92
1986Paikasisaurus indicus Yadagiri pp. 92-93 figs. 1r, s
1988Haplodontosaurus Carroll
1988Squamata Carroll
1988Squamata Estes et al.
1991Squamata Holman et al.
1991Squamata Norell and de Queiroz
1995Squamata Lingham-Soliar
1996Squamata Frank and Ramus
1996Squamata Gao and Fox p. 13
2001Squamata Peng et al. p. 26
2002Squamata Nicholls and Meckert p. 1593
2002Squamata Sepkoski, Jr.
2003Squamata Krause et al. p. 843
2003Squamata Meyer and Zardoya
2006Squamata Datta and Ray p. 795
2008Squamata Venczel and Stiuca p. 750
2010Squamata Böhme p. 18
2012Squamata Evans and Wang
2012Squamata Fernicola and Albino
2012Squamata Konishi et al.
2013Squamata Palci et al.

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
RankNameAuthor
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
Sauropsida
classReptilia
subclassEureptilia()
Romeriida
Diapsida()
Eosuchia()
Neodiapsida
SauriaGauthier 1984
Lepidosauromorpha(Benton 1983)
superorderLepidosauria()
orderSquamata
orderSquamata

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
No diagnoses are available
Measurements
No measurements are available
Composition: phosphaticsubp
Maximum body mass: 300 kgg
Minimum body mass: 10 gg
Environment: terrestrialsubc
Locomotion: actively mobilec
Created: 2017-04-17 15:16:03
Modified: 2017-04-17 15:16:03
Source: g = genus, subc = subclass, c = class, subp = subphylum
References: Holman 2000, Head 2005, Carroll 1988, Behler and King 1979, Hendy et al. 2009

Age range

Maximum range based only on fossils: base of the Lopingian to the top of the Holocene or 259.90000 to 0.00000 Ma
Minimum age of oldest fossil (stem group age): 252.17 Ma

Collections (2846 total)

Oldest occurrences

Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Lopingian259.9 - 252.17Italy (Trentino-Alto Adige) Ganasauripus ladinus (188750)
Pelsonian - Illyrian247.2 - 242.0Italy (Alto Adige) Megachirella wachtleri (194383)
Norian228.0 - 208.5USA (New Mexico) Squamata indet. (48516)
Norian - Sinemurian228.0 - 190.8South Africa (Eastern Cape) Lacertilia indet. (75181)
Toarcian - Aalenian182.7 - 170.3India (Andhra Pradesh) Squamata indet., Paikasisaurus indicus, Bharatagama rebbanensis (39673)
Bathonian168.3 - 166.1Russian Federation (Krasnoyarsk) Paramacellodidae indet. (61891)
Bathonian168.3 - 166.1Morocco (Figuig) Squamata indet., Scincomorpha indet., Parviraptor sp. (176120)
Early/Lower Bathonian167.7 - 164.7United Kingdom (England) Squamata indet. (31054)
Late/Upper Bathonian167.7 - 164.7Kyrgyzstan (Jalal-Abad) Changetisaurus estesi (58187)
Late/Upper Bathonian167.7 - 164.7United Kingdom (England) Saurillodon sp., Anguimorpha indet., Scincomorpha indet., Gekkota indet., Parviraptor estesi, Eophis underwoodi, Saurillodon marmorensis, Balnealacerta silvestris, Bellairsia gracilis, Oxiella tenuis (39075) Scincomorpha indet. (57139) Scincomorpha indet., Squamata indet. (166423) Squamata indet., Scincomorpha indet. (57124)
Middle Bathonian167.7 - 164.7United Kingdom (Scotland) Squamata indet., Paramacellodus oweni, Parviraptor sp., Gekkota indet. (139746)
Callovian166.1 - 163.5Kyrgyzstan (Jalal-Abad) Lacertilia indet. (37596 37597)
Early/Lower Callovian164.7 - 161.2China (Nei Mongol) Lacertilia long-limbed form, Lacertilia indet. (27891)
Oxfordian163.5 - 157.3China (Xinjiang) Paramacellodidae indet. (47056) Squamata indet. (182495)
Oxfordian163.5 - 157.3Japan (Fukui) Tedorosaurus asuwaensis (166015)
Oxfordian163.5 - 157.3Portugal (Leiria) Squamata indet. (69698)
Oxfordian - Kimmeridgian163.5 - 152.1Kazakhstan (Ongtüstik Qazaqstan) Sharovisaurus karatauensis (92136)
Late/Upper Jurassic163.5 - 145.0USA (Utah) Squamata indet., Serpentes indet. (191718)
Early/Lower Oxfordian161.2 - 155.7China (Liaoning) Hongshanxi xiei (130986)
Late/Upper Oxfordian161.2 - 155.7France (Basse-Normandie) Durotrigia triconidens (74916)